Abstract

We report on the new fabrication method of a-plane InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) using the epitaxy on patterned insulator on sapphire substrate (EPISS). Cathodoluminescence spectrum of the fully coalesced a-plane GaN template showed that band edge emission intensity of the wing region was four times higher than that of the window region. Threading dislocations and basal stacking faults densities in wing region were ~1×107 cm−2 and ~5☓104 cm−1, respectively. Blue-emitting (443.4 nm) a-plane InGaN LED employing EPISS showed the optical power of 3.1 mW and the EL FWHM of 25.2 nm at the injection current of 20 mA.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. T. Schwarz and M. Kneissl, “Nitride emitters go nonpolar,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1(3), A44–A46 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Araki, N. Mochimizo, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effect of misorientation angle of r-plane sapphire substrate on a-plane GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 119–123 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Araki, N. Mochimizo, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effect of misorientation angle of r-plane sapphire substrate on a-plane GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 119–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

U. T. Schwarz and M. Kneissl, “Nitride emitters go nonpolar,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1(3), A44–A46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Araki, M.

M. Araki, N. Mochimizo, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effect of misorientation angle of r-plane sapphire substrate on a-plane GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 119–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chitnis, A.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, I.

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hollander, J. L.

C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-K.

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, K.

M. Araki, N. Mochimizo, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effect of misorientation angle of r-plane sapphire substrate on a-plane GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 119–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-M.

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, C. F.

C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

U. T. Schwarz and M. Kneissl, “Nitride emitters go nonpolar,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1(3), A44–A46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.-S.

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuokstis, E.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leung, B.

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mandavilli, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U. K.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mochimizo, N.

M. Araki, N. Mochimizo, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effect of misorientation angle of r-plane sapphire substrate on a-plane GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 119–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

U. T. Schwarz and M. Kneissl, “Nitride emitters go nonpolar,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1(3), A44–A46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. G.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-S.

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-M.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tadatomo, K.

M. Araki, N. Mochimizo, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effect of misorientation angle of r-plane sapphire substrate on a-plane GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 119–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, F.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yerino, C. D.

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663–3665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN/GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1201–1203 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S.-K. Hong, S. Lee, J. Kim, J.-S. Son, and S.-M. Hwang, “Effects of basal stacking faults on electrical anisotropy of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes on sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 595–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Sun, B. H. Kong, C. D. Yerino, T.-S. Ko, B. Leung, H. K. Cho, and J. Han, “Morphological and microstructural evolution in the two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(12), 123519 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

C. F. Johnston, M. J. Kappers, M. A. Moram, J. L. Hollander, and C. J. Humphreys, “Assessment of defect reduction methods for nonpolar a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(12), 3295–3299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, and M. A. Khan, “Ultraviolet light emitting diodes using non-polar a-plane GaN-AlGaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1039–L1040 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Araki, N. Mochimizo, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effect of misorientation angle of r-plane sapphire substrate on a-plane GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 119–123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. Speck, S. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) (2)

U. T. Schwarz and M. Kneissl, “Nitride emitters go nonpolar,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 1(3), A44–A46 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plane and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi (RRL) 2(2), 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image for the surface of as-grown a-plane GaN template using EPISS, and optical micrograph image of oxide patterns on r-plane sapphire substrate shown in inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The cross-sectional CL image of as-grown a-plane GaN template on oxide-patterned sapphire substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CL plan-view image and spectra (inset) for the surface of as-grown a-plane GaN template on oxide-patterned sapphire substrates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The cross-sectional TEM image viewed along m-direction with g = 11-20, and (b) the plan-view TEM image (g = 1-100) of a-plane GaN template for wing and window (inset) regions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

L-I-V curve as a function of the injection current for nonpolar a-plane InGaN LEDs. The left inset shows EL image of a-plane InGaN LEDs with oxide-patterned sapphire substrates at 20 mA, and the right inset shows EL emission spectrum of a-plane InGaN LED.

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