Abstract

Standardization and quality monitoring of alcoholic beverages is an important issue in the liquor production industry. Various spectroscopic techniques have proved useful for tackling this problem. An ideal sensing device for alcoholic beverages should be able to detect the quality of alcohol with a small amount of sample at a low acquisition time using a portable and easy to use device. We propose the use of near infra-red spectroscopy on an optofluidic chip for quality monitoring of single malt Scotch whisky. This is chip upon which we have previously realized waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy. Analysis on this alignment-free, portable chip may be performed in only 2 seconds with a sample volume of only 20 µl. Using a partial least square (PLS) calibration, we demonstrate that the alcohol content in the beverage may be predicted to within a 1% prediction error. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed for successful classification of whiskies based upon their age, type and cask. The prospect of implementing an optofluidic analogue of a conventional fiber based spectroscopic probe allows a rapid analysis of alcoholic beverages with dramatically reduced sample volumes.

© 2011 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. R. Buchanan, D. E. Honigs, C. J. Lee, and W. Roth, “Detection of Ethanol in Wines Using Optical-Fiber Measurements and Near-Infrared Analysis,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42(6), 1106–1111 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Stopped-flow near-infrared spectrometric determination of ethanol and maltose in beers,” Anal. Chim. Acta 296(2), 155–161 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Tipparat, S. Lapanantnoppakhun, J. Jakmunee, and K. Grudpan, “Determination of ethanol in liquor by near-infrared spectrophotometry with flow injection,” Talanta 53(6), 1199–1204 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. S. Mendes, F. C. C. Oliveira, P. A. Z. Suarez, and J. C. Rubim, “Determination of ethanol in fuel ethanol and beverages by Fourier-transform (FT)-near-infra-red and FT Raman spectrometries,” Anal. Chim. Acta 493(2), 219–231 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Engelhard, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, and F. Schael, “Quantifying ethanol content of beer using interpretive near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(10), 1205–1209 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. González-Rodríguez, P. Pérez-Juan, and M. D. Luque de Castro, “Determination of ethanol in beverages by flow injection, pervaporation and density measurements,” Talanta 59(4), 691–696 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. I. Aylott, A. H. Clyne, A. P. Fox, and D. A. Walker, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity,” Analyst (Lond.) 119(8), 1741–1746 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. I. Aylott and W. M. MacKenzie, “Analytical Strategies to Confirm the Generic Authenticity of Scotch Whisky,” J. Inst. Brew. 116, 215–229 (2010).
  11. W. M. MacKenzie and R. I. Aylott, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity. Part II: Mobile brand authentication,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(7), 607–612 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 53–79 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. C. Ashok, A. C. D. Luca, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced bioanalyte detection in waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy using wavelength modulation,” J. Biophoton. 4, 514–518 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, K. M. Tan, and K. Dholakia, “Fiber probe based microfluidic raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7642–7649 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43(3), 542–554 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. W. Wiley, Beverages and Their Adulteration Origin, Composition, Manufacture, Natural, Artificial, Fermented, Distilled, Alkaloidal and Fruit Juices (P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1919).
  21. C. A. Lieber and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Automated method for subtraction of fluorescence from biological Raman spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(11), 1363–1367 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. J. Berger, T. W. Koo, I. Itzkan, G. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, “Multicomponent blood analysis by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38(13), 2916–2926 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Everitt and T. Hothorn, Principal Components Analysis An Introduction to Applied Multivariate Analysis with R (Springer New York, 2011), pp. 61–103.
  24. D. Wishart, “Classification of single malt whiskies,” (2000), http://www.whiskyclassified.com/classification.html .
  25. M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashok, A. C. D. Luca, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced bioanalyte detection in waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy using wavelength modulation,” J. Biophoton. 4, 514–518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. I. Aylott and W. M. MacKenzie, “Analytical Strategies to Confirm the Generic Authenticity of Scotch Whisky,” J. Inst. Brew. 116, 215–229 (2010).

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, K. M. Tan, and K. Dholakia, “Fiber probe based microfluidic raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7642–7649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 53–79 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

C. A. Lieber and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Automated method for subtraction of fluorescence from biological Raman spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(11), 1363–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Mendes, F. C. C. Oliveira, P. A. Z. Suarez, and J. C. Rubim, “Determination of ethanol in fuel ethanol and beverages by Fourier-transform (FT)-near-infra-red and FT Raman spectrometries,” Anal. Chim. Acta 493(2), 219–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. González-Rodríguez, P. Pérez-Juan, and M. D. Luque de Castro, “Determination of ethanol in beverages by flow injection, pervaporation and density measurements,” Talanta 59(4), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. Tipparat, S. Lapanantnoppakhun, J. Jakmunee, and K. Grudpan, “Determination of ethanol in liquor by near-infrared spectrophotometry with flow injection,” Talanta 53(6), 1199–1204 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1994 (2)

R. I. Aylott, A. H. Clyne, A. P. Fox, and D. A. Walker, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity,” Analyst (Lond.) 119(8), 1741–1746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Stopped-flow near-infrared spectrometric determination of ethanol and maltose in beers,” Anal. Chim. Acta 296(2), 155–161 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Ashok, P. C.

P. C. Ashok, A. C. D. Luca, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced bioanalyte detection in waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy using wavelength modulation,” J. Biophoton. 4, 514–518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, K. M. Tan, and K. Dholakia, “Fiber probe based microfluidic raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7642–7649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aylott, R. I.

R. I. Aylott and W. M. MacKenzie, “Analytical Strategies to Confirm the Generic Authenticity of Scotch Whisky,” J. Inst. Brew. 116, 215–229 (2010).

W. M. MacKenzie and R. I. Aylott, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity. Part II: Mobile brand authentication,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(7), 607–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. I. Aylott, A. H. Clyne, A. P. Fox, and D. A. Walker, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity,” Analyst (Lond.) 119(8), 1741–1746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A. J.

Bhattacharjee, M.

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bilyk, M. L.

A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchanan, B. R.

Burn, R. T.

A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clyne, A. H.

R. I. Aylott, A. H. Clyne, A. P. Fox, and D. A. Walker, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity,” Analyst (Lond.) 119(8), 1741–1746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Colquhoun, G.

A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cusick, F. M.

A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

de la Guardia, M.

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Stopped-flow near-infrared spectrometric determination of ethanol and maltose in beers,” Anal. Chim. Acta 296(2), 155–161 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashok, A. C. D. Luca, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced bioanalyte detection in waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy using wavelength modulation,” J. Biophoton. 4, 514–518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, K. M. Tan, and K. Dholakia, “Fiber probe based microfluidic raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7642–7649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Engelhard, S.

Feld, M. S.

Fox, A. P.

R. I. Aylott, A. H. Clyne, A. P. Fox, and D. A. Walker, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity,” Analyst (Lond.) 119(8), 1741–1746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Galindo, L. H.

Gallignani, M.

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Stopped-flow near-infrared spectrometric determination of ethanol and maltose in beers,” Anal. Chim. Acta 296(2), 155–161 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gardecki, J. A.

Garrigues, S.

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Stopped-flow near-infrared spectrometric determination of ethanol and maltose in beers,” Anal. Chim. Acta 296(2), 155–161 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

González-Rodríguez, J.

J. González-Rodríguez, P. Pérez-Juan, and M. D. Luque de Castro, “Determination of ethanol in beverages by flow injection, pervaporation and density measurements,” Talanta 59(4), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grudpan, K.

P. Tipparat, S. Lapanantnoppakhun, J. Jakmunee, and K. Grudpan, “Determination of ethanol in liquor by near-infrared spectrophotometry with flow injection,” Talanta 53(6), 1199–1204 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Honigs, D. E.

Horowitz, G.

Hunt, H. C.

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 53–79 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, M.

Itzkan, I.

Jakmunee, J.

P. Tipparat, S. Lapanantnoppakhun, J. Jakmunee, and K. Grudpan, “Determination of ethanol in liquor by near-infrared spectrophotometry with flow injection,” Talanta 53(6), 1199–1204 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, T. W.

Kramer, J. R.

Krauss, T. F.

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapanantnoppakhun, S.

P. Tipparat, S. Lapanantnoppakhun, J. Jakmunee, and K. Grudpan, “Determination of ethanol in liquor by near-infrared spectrophotometry with flow injection,” Talanta 53(6), 1199–1204 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. J.

Lieber, C. A.

Littlejohn, D.

A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Löhmannsröben, H.-G.

Luca, A. C. D.

P. C. Ashok, A. C. D. Luca, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced bioanalyte detection in waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy using wavelength modulation,” J. Biophoton. 4, 514–518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luque de Castro, M. D.

J. González-Rodríguez, P. Pérez-Juan, and M. D. Luque de Castro, “Determination of ethanol in beverages by flow injection, pervaporation and density measurements,” Talanta 59(4), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacKenzie, W. M.

R. I. Aylott and W. M. MacKenzie, “Analytical Strategies to Confirm the Generic Authenticity of Scotch Whisky,” J. Inst. Brew. 116, 215–229 (2010).

W. M. MacKenzie and R. I. Aylott, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity. Part II: Mobile brand authentication,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(7), 607–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

Majumder, S. K.

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

P. C. Ashok, A. C. D. Luca, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced bioanalyte detection in waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy using wavelength modulation,” J. Biophoton. 4, 514–518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, A. C.

A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendes, L. S.

L. S. Mendes, F. C. C. Oliveira, P. A. Z. Suarez, and J. C. Rubim, “Determination of ethanol in fuel ethanol and beverages by Fourier-transform (FT)-near-infra-red and FT Raman spectrometries,” Anal. Chim. Acta 493(2), 219–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mills, A.

A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

Nordon, A.

A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F. C. C.

L. S. Mendes, F. C. C. Oliveira, P. A. Z. Suarez, and J. C. Rubim, “Determination of ethanol in fuel ethanol and beverages by Fourier-transform (FT)-near-infra-red and FT Raman spectrometries,” Anal. Chim. Acta 493(2), 219–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Juan, P.

J. González-Rodríguez, P. Pérez-Juan, and M. D. Luque de Castro, “Determination of ethanol in beverages by flow injection, pervaporation and density measurements,” Talanta 59(4), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, K. D.

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rendall, H. A.

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, W.

Rubim, J. C.

L. S. Mendes, F. C. C. Oliveira, P. A. Z. Suarez, and J. C. Rubim, “Determination of ethanol in fuel ethanol and beverages by Fourier-transform (FT)-near-infra-red and FT Raman spectrometries,” Anal. Chim. Acta 493(2), 219–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schael, F.

Singh, G. P.

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, K. M. Tan, and K. Dholakia, “Fiber probe based microfluidic raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7642–7649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suarez, P. A. Z.

L. S. Mendes, F. C. C. Oliveira, P. A. Z. Suarez, and J. C. Rubim, “Determination of ethanol in fuel ethanol and beverages by Fourier-transform (FT)-near-infra-red and FT Raman spectrometries,” Anal. Chim. Acta 493(2), 219–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. M.

Tipparat, P.

P. Tipparat, S. Lapanantnoppakhun, J. Jakmunee, and K. Grudpan, “Determination of ethanol in liquor by near-infrared spectrophotometry with flow injection,” Talanta 53(6), 1199–1204 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verma, Y.

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. A.

R. I. Aylott, A. H. Clyne, A. P. Fox, and D. A. Walker, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity,” Analyst (Lond.) 119(8), 1741–1746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 53–79 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (4)

A. Nordon, A. Mills, R. T. Burn, F. M. Cusick, and D. Littlejohn, “Comparison of non-invasive NIR and Raman spectrometries for determination of alcohol content of spirits,” Anal. Chim. Acta 548(1-2), 148–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Mendes, F. C. C. Oliveira, P. A. Z. Suarez, and J. C. Rubim, “Determination of ethanol in fuel ethanol and beverages by Fourier-transform (FT)-near-infra-red and FT Raman spectrometries,” Anal. Chim. Acta 493(2), 219–231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. C. McIntyre, M. L. Bilyk, A. Nordon, G. Colquhoun, and D. Littlejohn, “Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres,” Anal. Chim. Acta 690(2), 228–233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Stopped-flow near-infrared spectrometric determination of ethanol and maltose in beers,” Anal. Chim. Acta 296(2), 155–161 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (Lond.) (3)

M. Gallignani, S. Garrigues, and M. de la Guardia, “Direct determination of ethanol in all types of alcoholic beverages by near-infrared derivative spectrometry,” Analyst (Lond.) 118(9), 1167–1173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Aylott, A. H. Clyne, A. P. Fox, and D. A. Walker, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity,” Analyst (Lond.) 119(8), 1741–1746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. M. MacKenzie and R. I. Aylott, “Analytical strategies to confirm Scotch whisky authenticity. Part II: Mobile brand authentication,” Analyst (Lond.) 129(7), 607–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 121–147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophoton. (1)

P. C. Ashok, A. C. D. Luca, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Enhanced bioanalyte detection in waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy using wavelength modulation,” J. Biophoton. 4, 514–518 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Inst. Brew. (1)

R. I. Aylott and W. M. MacKenzie, “Analytical Strategies to Confirm the Generic Authenticity of Scotch Whisky,” J. Inst. Brew. 116, 215–229 (2010).

JIOHS (1)

M. Bhattacharjee, P. C. Ashok, K. D. Rao, S. K. Majumder, Y. Verma, and P. K. Gupta, “Binary tissue classification studies on resected human breast tissues using optical coherence tomography images,” JIOHS 4(01), 59–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

P. C. Ashok, G. P. Singh, H. A. Rendall, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Waveguide confined Raman spectroscopy for microfluidic interrogation,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1262–1270 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

H. C. Hunt and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optofluidic integration for microanalysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4(1-2), 53–79 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 106–114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Talanta (2)

J. González-Rodríguez, P. Pérez-Juan, and M. D. Luque de Castro, “Determination of ethanol in beverages by flow injection, pervaporation and density measurements,” Talanta 59(4), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tipparat, S. Lapanantnoppakhun, J. Jakmunee, and K. Grudpan, “Determination of ethanol in liquor by near-infrared spectrophotometry with flow injection,” Talanta 53(6), 1199–1204 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. W. Wiley, Beverages and Their Adulteration Origin, Composition, Manufacture, Natural, Artificial, Fermented, Distilled, Alkaloidal and Fruit Juices (P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1919).

B. Everitt and T. Hothorn, Principal Components Analysis An Introduction to Applied Multivariate Analysis with R (Springer New York, 2011), pp. 61–103.

D. Wishart, “Classification of single malt whiskies,” (2000), http://www.whiskyclassified.com/classification.html .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics