Abstract

Multiple parameters of nanocomposite Si/Sb80Te20 multilayer films are possibly optimized simultaneously to satisfy the development of ideal phase-change memory devices by adjusting chemical composition and physical structure of multilayer films. The crystallization and structure of the films are studied by coherent phonon spectroscopy. Laser irradiation power dependence of coherent optical phonon spectroscopy reveals laser-induced crystallization of the amorphous multilayer film, while coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy reveals the presence of folded acoustic phonons which suggests a good periodic structure of the multilayer films. Laser irradiation-induced crystallization shows applicable potentials of the multilayer films in optical phase change storage.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. S. Youm, Y. T. Kim, Y. H. Kim, and M. Y. Sung, “Effects of excess Sb on crystallization of δ-phase SbTe binary thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(7), 1636–1640 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. G. Wang, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Reduction in coherent phonon lifetime in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz phonons driven by light pulses and the Sb problem: what is the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. B. Renucci, W. Richter, M. Cardona, and E. Schönherr, “Resonance Raman scattering in group Vb semimetals: As, Sb, and Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 60(1), 299–308 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Colvard, R. Merlin, M. V. Klein, and A. C. Gossard, “Observation of folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(4), 298–301 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. X. Zhang, D. J. Lockwood, and J.-M. Baribeau, “Acoustic phonon peak splitting and satellite lines in Raman spectra of semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(3), 267–269 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. J. Singh, R. Satoh, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Structure changes and compound forming effects in the molten Sb-Te system investigated by molar volume and sound velocity measurements,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 72(10), 2546–2550 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. R. Testardi and J. J. Hauser, “Sound velocity in amorphous Ge and Si,” Sol. Phys. Comm. 21(11), 1039–1041 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. G. Wang, C. Leibig, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Acoustic phonon scattering in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 083103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y.-C. Her, H. Chen, and Y.-S. Hsu, “Effects of Ag and In addition on the optical properties and crystallization kinetics of eutectic Sb70Te30 phase-change recording film,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 10097–10103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. G. Wang, C. Leibig, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Acoustic phonon scattering in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 083103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y. G. Wang, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Reduction in coherent phonon lifetime in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Youm, Y. T. Kim, Y. H. Kim, and M. Y. Sung, “Effects of excess Sb on crystallization of δ-phase SbTe binary thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(7), 1636–1640 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. J. Singh, R. Satoh, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Structure changes and compound forming effects in the molten Sb-Te system investigated by molar volume and sound velocity measurements,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 72(10), 2546–2550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Her, H. Chen, and Y.-S. Hsu, “Effects of Ag and In addition on the optical properties and crystallization kinetics of eutectic Sb70Te30 phase-change recording film,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 10097–10103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz phonons driven by light pulses and the Sb problem: what is the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. X. Zhang, D. J. Lockwood, and J.-M. Baribeau, “Acoustic phonon peak splitting and satellite lines in Raman spectra of semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(3), 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. Colvard, R. Merlin, M. V. Klein, and A. C. Gossard, “Observation of folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(4), 298–301 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

L. R. Testardi and J. J. Hauser, “Sound velocity in amorphous Ge and Si,” Sol. Phys. Comm. 21(11), 1039–1041 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. B. Renucci, W. Richter, M. Cardona, and E. Schönherr, “Resonance Raman scattering in group Vb semimetals: As, Sb, and Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 60(1), 299–308 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, T. F.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz phonons driven by light pulses and the Sb problem: what is the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baribeau, J.-M.

P. X. Zhang, D. J. Lockwood, and J.-M. Baribeau, “Acoustic phonon peak splitting and satellite lines in Raman spectra of semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(3), 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Béchevet, B.

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boschetto, D.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

J. B. Renucci, W. Richter, M. Cardona, and E. Schönherr, “Resonance Raman scattering in group Vb semimetals: As, Sb, and Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 60(1), 299–308 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Y.-C. Her, H. Chen, and Y.-S. Hsu, “Effects of Ag and In addition on the optical properties and crystallization kinetics of eutectic Sb70Te30 phase-change recording film,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 10097–10103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R.

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colvard, C.

C. Colvard, R. Merlin, M. V. Klein, and A. C. Gossard, “Observation of folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(4), 298–301 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Endicott, L.

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fons, P.

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Först, M.

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gan, C. L.

M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, G. A.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz phonons driven by light pulses and the Sb problem: what is the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gawelda, W.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

C. Colvard, R. Merlin, M. V. Klein, and A. C. Gossard, “Observation of folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(4), 298–301 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gotoh, H.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guerin, S.

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, J. J.

L. R. Testardi and J. J. Hauser, “Sound velocity in amorphous Ge and Si,” Sol. Phys. Comm. 21(11), 1039–1041 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, B. E.

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Her, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Her, H. Chen, and Y.-S. Hsu, “Effects of Ag and In addition on the optical properties and crystallization kinetics of eutectic Sb70Te30 phase-change recording film,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 10097–10103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Rueda, J.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y.-S.

Y.-C. Her, H. Chen, and Y.-S. Hsu, “Effects of Ag and In addition on the optical properties and crystallization kinetics of eutectic Sb70Te30 phase-change recording film,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 10097–10103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, N.

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishizawa, A.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. A.

S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

M. S. Youm, Y. T. Kim, Y. H. Kim, and M. Y. Sung, “Effects of excess Sb on crystallization of δ-phase SbTe binary thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(7), 1636–1640 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. T.

M. S. Youm, Y. T. Kim, Y. H. Kim, and M. Y. Sung, “Effects of excess Sb on crystallization of δ-phase SbTe binary thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(7), 1636–1640 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, N.

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitajima, M.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. V.

C. Colvard, R. Merlin, M. V. Klein, and A. C. Gossard, “Observation of folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(4), 298–301 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, A. E. T.

L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lankhorst, M. H. R.

L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laurenzis, M.

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leibig, C.

Y. G. Wang, C. Leibig, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Acoustic phonon scattering in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 083103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lockwood, D. J.

P. X. Zhang, D. J. Lockwood, and J.-M. Baribeau, “Acoustic phonon peak splitting and satellite lines in Raman spectra of semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(3), 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Magara, Y.

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mansart, B.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, R.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz phonons driven by light pulses and the Sb problem: what is the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Colvard, R. Merlin, M. V. Klein, and A. C. Gossard, “Observation of folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(4), 298–301 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Miao, X. S.

M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuka, T.

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

No, K.

S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oguri, K.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Renucci, J. B.

J. B. Renucci, W. Richter, M. Cardona, and E. Schönherr, “Resonance Raman scattering in group Vb semimetals: As, Sb, and Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 60(1), 299–308 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Richter, W.

J. B. Renucci, W. Richter, M. Cardona, and E. Schönherr, “Resonance Raman scattering in group Vb semimetals: As, Sb, and Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 60(1), 299–308 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, J. H. J.

L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, R.

K. J. Singh, R. Satoh, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Structure changes and compound forming effects in the molten Sb-Te system investigated by molar volume and sound velocity measurements,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 72(10), 2546–2550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savoia, A.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schönherr, E.

J. B. Renucci, W. Richter, M. Cardona, and E. Schönherr, “Resonance Raman scattering in group Vb semimetals: As, Sb, and Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 60(1), 299–308 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shang, F.

C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. P.

M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimidzu, N.

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R. E.

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K. J.

K. J. Singh, R. Satoh, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Structure changes and compound forming effects in the molten Sb-Te system investigated by molar volume and sound velocity measurements,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 72(10), 2546–2550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sogawa, T.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. M.

S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z.

C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, V. A.

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sung, M. Y.

M. S. Youm, Y. T. Kim, Y. H. Kim, and M. Y. Sung, “Effects of excess Sb on crystallization of δ-phase SbTe binary thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(7), 1636–1640 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, K.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, T.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Testardi, L. R.

L. R. Testardi and J. J. Hauser, “Sound velocity in amorphous Ge and Si,” Sol. Phys. Comm. 21(11), 1039–1041 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y. T.

M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, J.

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trappe, C.

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

K. J. Singh, R. Satoh, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Structure changes and compound forming effects in the molten Sb-Te system investigated by molar volume and sound velocity measurements,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 72(10), 2546–2550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uher, C.

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Pieterson, L.

L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Schijndel, M.

L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Venkatasubramanian, R.

Y. G. Wang, C. Leibig, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Acoustic phonon scattering in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 083103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Reduction in coherent phonon lifetime in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. Y.

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. G.

Y. G. Wang, C. Leibig, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Acoustic phonon scattering in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 083103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Reduction in coherent phonon lifetime in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz phonons driven by light pulses and the Sb problem: what is the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. F.

Y. G. Wang, C. Leibig, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Acoustic phonon scattering in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 083103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Reduction in coherent phonon lifetime in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Youm, M. S.

M. S. Youm, Y. T. Kim, Y. H. Kim, and M. Y. Sung, “Effects of excess Sb on crystallization of δ-phase SbTe binary thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(7), 1636–1640 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, J.

C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P. X.

P. X. Zhang, D. J. Lockwood, and J.-M. Baribeau, “Acoustic phonon peak splitting and satellite lines in Raman spectra of semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(3), 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

R. E. Simpson, D. W. Hewak, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, S. Guerin, and B. E. Hayden, “Reduction in crystallization time of Sb:Te films through addition og Bi,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Först, T. Dekorsy, C. Trappe, M. Laurenzis, H. Kurz, and B. Béchevet, “Phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5 films investigated by coherent phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1964 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, M. Kitajima, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Doping-type dependence of phonon dephasing dynamics in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141904 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Li, V. A. Stoica, L. Endicott, G. Y. Wang, C. Uher, and R. Clarke, “Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb2Te3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171908 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Reduction in coherent phonon lifetime in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 113114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hernandez-Rueda, A. Savoia, W. Gawelda, J. Solis, B. Mansart, D. Boschetto, and J. Siegel, “Coherent optical phonons in different phases of Ge2Sb2Te5 upon strong laser excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251906 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. X. Zhang, D. J. Lockwood, and J.-M. Baribeau, “Acoustic phonon peak splitting and satellite lines in Raman spectra of semiconductor superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(3), 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Wang, C. Leibig, X. F. Xu, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Acoustic phonon scattering in Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 083103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. Wang, J. Zhai, Z. Song, F. Shang, and X. Yao, “Phase-change behavior in Si/Sb80Te20 nanocomposite multilayer films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(1), 193–198 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. van Pieterson, M. H. R. Lankhorst, M. van Schijndel, A. E. T. Kuiper, and J. H. J. Roosen, “Phase-change recording materials with a growth-dominated crystallization mechanism: A material review,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083520 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Her, H. Chen, and Y.-S. Hsu, “Effects of Ag and In addition on the optical properties and crystallization kinetics of eutectic Sb70Te30 phase-change recording film,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(12), 10097–10103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. J. Singh, R. Satoh, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Structure changes and compound forming effects in the molten Sb-Te system investigated by molar volume and sound velocity measurements,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 72(10), 2546–2550 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Shimidzu, T. Nagatsuka, Y. Magara, N. Ishii, N. Kinoshita, and K. Sato, “Dynamic observation study of crystallization process in Sb-based phase-change materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(16), L385–L387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, “Coherent zone-folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices: excitation and detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(5), 1044–1047 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Colvard, R. Merlin, M. V. Klein, and A. C. Gossard, “Observation of folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(4), 298–301 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Garrett, T. F. Albrecht, J. F. Whitaker, and R. Merlin, “Coherent THz phonons driven by light pulses and the Sb problem: what is the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(17), 3661–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

J. B. Renucci, W. Richter, M. Cardona, and E. Schönherr, “Resonance Raman scattering in group Vb semimetals: As, Sb, and Bi,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 60(1), 299–308 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (2)

M. S. Youm, Y. T. Kim, Y. H. Kim, and M. Y. Sung, “Effects of excess Sb on crystallization of δ-phase SbTe binary thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(7), 1636–1640 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, L. P. Shi, Y. T. Tian, C. L. Gan, and X. S. Miao, “Crystallization behavior of Sb70Te30 and Ag3In5Sb60Te32 chalcogenide materials for optical media applications,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(2), 340–344 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. K. Kim, Y. S. Kim, M. A. Kang, J. M. Sohn, and K. No, “Optical properties of a-Si films for 157 nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 5130, 127–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. Comm. (1)

L. R. Testardi and J. J. Hauser, “Sound velocity in amorphous Ge and Si,” Sol. Phys. Comm. 21(11), 1039–1041 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transient photoreflectance traces for different laser irradiation power but the same pump power of 15 mW

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transient oscillation of COP separated from Fig. 1 for different laser irradiation power. (b) FFT spectra corresponding to (a). (c) Lifetimes and intensity ratio of two phonon modes at 3.90 and 4.52 THz vs. LIP. The horizontal dashed lines in (a) denote zero baselines, and shifted upward for clarity. The baselines are also shifted upward for clarity in (b). The horizontal dash lines in(c) are guides for eyes. The lines with filled squares belong to left y-axis in (c), while scattered open circles with error bar are scaled by right y-axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FFT spectra of COP of a 5 nm thick amorphous Sb80Te20 film for different LIP. (b) Raman spectra of 5 nm-thick single layer and multilayer amorphous Sb80Te20 films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transient oscillation of coherent optical phonons in the multilayer films crystallized by annealing and 55 mW laser irradiation, respectively. (b) FFT spectra corresponding to (a). The baselines are shifted upward for clarity in (a) and (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Large time-scale transient photoreflectance changes taken on the amorphous and crystallized films. Laser irradiation crystallized film means the amorphous film irradiated by a 55 mW laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transient oscillatory traces of coherent acoustic phonons (CAP) taken on the amorphous film and crystallized films by annealing and laser irradiation, respectively. (b) FFT spectra corresponding to (a). The baselines are shifted upward for clarity in (a) and (b). The m = 0, −1, and 1 in (b) denote the folded index of folded acoustic phonon modes in multiple periodic structure films.

Equations (1)

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ω m =v| 2πm d 1 + d 2 +q|, (m=0,±1,±2,,)

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