Abstract

we demonstrate a non-absorption grating approach for X-ray phase contrast imaging based-on grating interferometry. This technique overcomes the limitations imposed by absorption gratings, provides another choice for X-ray phase contrast imaging and potentially improves the image quality for higher X-ray photon energies. We constructed the key devices, established the system and obtained phase contrast images with a field of view larger than 5 centimeters, which is the limitation imposed by the size of our current CCD detector. This method has no need for absorption gratings, which represents a significant development for future promising applications in medicine and industry.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22(4), 375–379 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Momose, “Phase-sensitive imaging and phase tomography using X-ray interferometers,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2303–2314 (2003).
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  13. T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).
  18. F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).
  28. M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

2002

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22(4), 375–379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1965

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Arfelli, F.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badel, X.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnea, Z.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beliaevskaya, E. A.

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Brönnimann, Ch.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruder, J.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloetens, P.

Cookson, D. J.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. J.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donath, T.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engel, K. J.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, J.

A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22(4), 375–379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, D.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gmür, N.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groso, A.

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grünzweig, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

Guo, J.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

Gureyev, T. E.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hart, M.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huwahara, H.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwu, Y.

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ingal, V. N.

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itai, Y.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Je, J. H.

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, R. E.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufmann, R.

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

Kawabata, K.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kottler, C.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuznetsov, S.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lei, Y.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

Linnros, J.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

Liu, Y.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margaritondo, G.

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marone, F.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, S. A.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menk, R.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menser, B.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Momose, A.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, “Phase-sensitive imaging and phase tomography using X-ray interferometers,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2303–2314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22(4), 375–379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niu, H.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noda, D.

D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nöhammer, B.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard X-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard x-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(10), 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, J. Bruder, and R. Kaufmann, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging of large samples using an incoherent laboratory source,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(8), 2728–2733 (2007) (a).

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pisano, E.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogany, A.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rohbeck, T.

C. David, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, C. Grünzweig, C. Kottler, A. Diaz, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Fabrication of diffraction gratings for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1172–1177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rutishauser, S.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahlholm, A.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sayers, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schelokov, I.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simon, M.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snigirev, A.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stampanoni, M.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, A. W.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, W.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, N.

D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, T.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomlinson, W.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, W.

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsujii, H.

D. Noda, H. Tsujii, N. Takahashi, and T. Hattori, “Fabrication of high precision X-ray mask for X-ray grating of X-ray Talbot interferometer,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1309–1313 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washburn, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weikamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weikamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, T.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources,” Proc. SPIE 6318, 63180S, 63180S-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard X-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yashiro, W.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zanette, I.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional x-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

Zhong, Z.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu, K. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Liu, Z. Wu, S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, and M. Stampanoni, “Low-dose, simple, and fast grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(31), 13576–13581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, E.

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Acta. Phys. Sin.

X. Liu, Y. Lei, Z. Zhao, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “Design and fabrication of hard x-ray phase grating,” Acta. Phys. Sin. 59, 6927 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Rutishauser, I. Zanette, T. Donath, A. Sahlholm, J. Linnros, and C. David, “Structured scintillator for hard x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer with long separated interfering beam paths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155 (1965).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. B

Y. Lei, X. Liu, J. Guo, Z. Zhao, and H. Niu, “Development of x-ray scintillator functioning also as an analyzer grating used in grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Chin. Phys. B 20(4), 042901 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, J. Guo, and H. Niu, “A new method of detecting interferogram in differential phase-contrast imaging system based on special structured x-ray scintillator screen,” Chin. Phys. B 19(7), 070701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

Y. Hwu, W. Tsai, A. Groso, G. Margaritondo, and J. H. Je, “Coherence-enhanced synchrotron radiology: Simple theory and practical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(13), R105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Ingal and E. A. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Huwahara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-Based X-ray Phase Imaging Using Multiline X-ray Source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 076512 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose and J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of nonstained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22(4), 375–379 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) The principles of the non-absorption grating X-ray phase-contrast imaging. The system consists of a ladder-shaped multi-line X-ray source, a phase grating and a structured scintillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) The image of a piece of a violet leaf. (a) is the conventional digital chromo-photograph. (b) is the X-ray transmission image. (c) is the differential phase contrast image. (d), (e) and (f) are magnified sections of the chromatic, transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the dried footstalk. (g), (h) and (i) are the magnified sections of the chromatic, transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the dried leaf apex. (j) and (k) are the profile values of the transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the dried footstalk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The chicken claw image. (a) is the X-ray transmission image. (b) is the differential phase contrast image. (c) and (d) are magnified sections of the transmission and differential phase contrast images, respectively, of the chicken toes.

Equations (2)

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l c = z 0 λ γ 0 p 0 p 1,
M= ( z 0 + z 1 ) z 0 ,

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