Abstract

We propose a method capable of focusing a laser beam on a substrate automatically via fluorescence detection from the resin of a two-photon nanofabrication system. When two-photon absorption (TPA) occurs by focusing the laser beam in the resin, fluorescence is emitted from the focusing region in the visible range. The total pixel number above the threshold value of the fluorescence images obtained by a CCD camera is plotted on a graph in accordance with the focus position. By searching for the position when the total pixel number undergoes an abrupt change in the pre-TPA region, the correct configuration of the focused laser beam can be found. Through focusing tests conducted at four vertices of a 500 μm x 500 μm square placed arbitrarily inside SCR500 resin, the errors of the autofocusing method were found to range from −100 nm to + 200 nm. Moreover, this method does not leave any polymerized marks. To verify the usefulness of the autofocusing method, the fabrication of a pyramid structure consisting of 20 layers was attempted on a coverglass. It was completely fabricated without losing a layer.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE 1674, 776–782 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22(2), 132–134 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 301–303 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultrafast laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 high-aspect-ratio structures and nanowire,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 215–219 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10209–10221 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K.-S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D.-Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

M. Malinauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Bičkauskaitė, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultrafast laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 high-aspect-ratio structures and nanowire,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K.-S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D.-Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE 1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bickauskaite, G.

Busch, K.

Chichkov, B. N.

Cho, N.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronauer, C.

Deubel, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Domann, G.

Egbert, A.

Essig, S.

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudenthaler, G.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fröhlich, L.

Gadonas, R.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershgoren, E.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrell, W. R.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE 1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hermatschweiler, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, J.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höglinger, O.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houbertz, R.

Hur, J.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacak, J.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, K. K.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kawata, S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22(2), 132–134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-M.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.-S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R. H.

K.-S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D.-Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H. J.

H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultrafast laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 high-aspect-ratio structures and nanowire,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-S.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultrafast laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 high-aspect-ratio structures and nanowire,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D.-Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, T. W.

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, M.

Maruo, S.

Nakamura, O.

Ostendorf, A.

Ozin, G. A.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-J.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

K.-S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D.-Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Willard, F.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

Prabhakaran, P.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schindler, H.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, J.

Schütz, G. J.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serbin, J.

Son, Y.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnleitner, A.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnleitner, M.

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

Strickler, J. H.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE 1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tétreault, N.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE 1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E. S.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. R. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon lithography for microelectronic application,” Proc. SPIE 1674, 776–782 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.-Y.

J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultrafast laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 high-aspect-ratio structures and nanowire,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D.-Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. K.

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, S. W.

H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultrafast laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 high-aspect-ratio structures and nanowire,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Žukauskas, A.

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. Hesse, M. Sonnleitner, A. Sonnleitner, G. Freudenthaler, J. Jacak, O. Höglinger, H. Schindler, and G. J. Schütz, “Single-molecule reader for high-throughput bioanalysis,” Anal. Chem. 76(19), 5960–5964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D.-Y. Yang, S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, H. K. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(1), 013113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

H. J. Kong, S. W. Yi, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Ultrafast laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization of SU-8 high-aspect-ratio structures and nanowire,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 215–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J.-J. Park, P. Prabhakaran, K. K. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Lee, K. Lee, J. Hur, J.-M. Kim, N. Cho, Y. Son, D.-Y. Yang, and K.-S. Lee, “Photopatternable quantum dots forming quasi-ordered arrays,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2310–2317 (2010).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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[CrossRef]

Prog. Polym. Sci. (1)

K.-S. Lee, R. H. Kim, D.-Y. Yang, and S. H. Park, “Advances in 3D nano/microfabrication using two-photon initiated polymerization,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(6), 631–681 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic energy level diagram of TPP process, and (b) the absorption and emission spectra of a TP-MOSF-TP in SCR500 resin.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the region above the TPA threshold, the region of pre-TPA, the region of fluorescence, and isophotes in a LFS. The LFS is between the resin and the glass substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the nanofabrication via TPP. M, mirror; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; OL, objective lens; S, substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A background noise image, (b) a fluorescence image with the noise, and (c) a fluorescence image without the noise obtained by the CCD camera. The graph of (d) z position versus total intensity, and (e) z position versus integrated intensity. The z position is the relative position of the LFS from the surface of a substrate on the optical axis. Total intensity is the total sum of the pixel value of the fluorescence image without the noise, as like (c). (f) The integrated intensity is the integration of the total intensity as the position of the LFS increases on the z-axis. Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) image of nine remaining polymerized marks after process (i)-(vi). The process is tested nine times at 10-μm spaces on a coverglass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The graph of z position versus total number of pixel and schematic diagram of the LFS in the autofocusing method. The z position is the relative position of the LFS on the optical axis by moving up the glass substrate. In the experimental setup, the substrate and the resin are inverted. The total number of pixel is the total sum of the pixels above the threshold value Ith in the fluorescence image. (b) The results of test experiments of the autofocusing method (process (i') - (viii')) executed at four vertices of a 500 μm x 500 μm square placed arbitrarily inside the SCR500 resin and the focus positions determined by the autofocusing method and the theoretical focus position were compared on each other. There are no polymerized marks in the autofocusing test point (circle) in a SEM image. (c) A SEM image of a minimum sized voxel fabricated using SCR500 resin in our TPP system. (d) A 2-D window pattern completely fabricated by using the autofocusing method. (e) A fabricated 3-D pyramid structure which is composed of 20 layers by using the autofocusing method. A SEM image on the right shows the counting of 20 layers of the structure. All 20 layers were successfully fabricated.

Equations (2)

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N pix x=1 P x y=1 P y N[( I xy I th )>0] .
A z = Z i ( N pix )+ D c .

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