Abstract

A static electric field enables coherent control of the photoexcited carrier density in a semiconductor through the interference of one- and two-photon absorption. An experiment using optical detection is described. The polarization dependence of the signal is consistent with a calculation using a 14-band k · p model for GaAs. We also describe an electrical measurement. A strong enhancement of the phase-dependent photocurrent through a metal-semiconductor-metal structure is observed when a bias of a few volts is applied. The dependence of the signal on bias and laser spot position is studied. The field-induced enhancement of the signal could increase the sensitivity of semiconductor-based carrier-envelope phase detectors, useful in stabilizing mode-locked lasers for use in frequency combs.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical injection of ballistic electrical currents in unbiased silicon,” Nat. Phys. 3, 632–635 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear electroreflectance in silicon and silver,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. M. Fraser and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of free-carrier density in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 085208 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, and S. T. Cundiff, “Uniform-field transverse electroreflectance using a mode-locked laser and a radio-frequency bias,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. N. Laman, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of currents in CdSe with a single optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2581–2583 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 362–368 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. Cundiff, R. Bhat, and J. Sipe, “Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Express 11, 2081–2090 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Excitonic effects on the two-color coherent control of interband transitions in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075205 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. H. Shen and M. Dutta, “Franz–Keldysh oscillations in modulation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2151–2176 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Dember, “Über eine photoelektronische Kraft in Kupferoxydul-Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 32, 554 (1931).
  40. G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Werner, K. Ploog, and H. J. Queisser, “Interface-state measurements at Schottky contacts: a new admittance technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1080–1083 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. J. H. Kim, A. Polley, and S. E. Ralph, “Efficient photoconductive terahertz source using line excitation,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2490–2492 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field terahertz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1546–1548 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. H. Zhang, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. B. Choi, and S. T. Cundiff, “Contactless photoconductive terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 223–225 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, S. B. Choi, S. Kannan, D. S. Dessau, J. E. Sipe, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical coherent control induced by an electric field in a semiconductor: a new manifestation of the Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, S. T. Cundiff, and J. E. Sipe, “Polarization dependence of the two-photon Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 233201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. B. Choi, and S. T. Cundiff, “Contactless photoconductive terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 223–225 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents,” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, and S. T. Cundiff, “Uniform-field transverse electroreflectance using a mode-locked laser and a radio-frequency bias,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Snider, J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Quantum interference control of photocurrent injection in Er-doped GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 333–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand and J. E. Sipe, “Independent-particle theory of the Franz-Keldysh effect including interband coupling: Application to calculation of electroabsorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 075206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Zhao, E. J. Loren, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “Dynamics of charge currents ballistically injected in GaAs by quantum interference,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical injection of ballistic electrical currents in unbiased silicon,” Nat. Phys. 3, 632–635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kerachian, P. A. Marsden, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Dynamics of charge current gratings generated in GaAs by ultrafast quantum interference control,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, P. A. Roos, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Smith, “Electrical measurement of carrier population modulation by two-color coherent control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, and T. Dekorsy, “Optimum excitation conditions for the generation of high-electric-field terahertz radiation from an oscillator-driven photoconductive device,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1546–1548 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (2)

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roos, X. Li, J. Pipis, and S. Cundiff, “Solid-state carrier-envelope-phase noise measurements with intrinsically balanced detection,” Opt. Express 12, 4255–4260 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fraser and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of free-carrier density in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 085208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. Cundiff, R. Bhat, and J. Sipe, “Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements,” Opt. Express 11, 2081–2090 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

N. Laman, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of currents in CdSe with a single optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2581–2583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference in electron-hole generation in noncentrosymmetric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4192–4195 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Haché, J. Sipe, and H. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Pfeffer and W. Zawadzki, “Five-level k · p model for the conduction and valence bands of GaAs and InP,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 12813–12828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

H. Shen and M. Dutta, “Franz–Keldysh oscillations in modulation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2151–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596–3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. Gupta, S. Sethi, and P. K. Bhattacharya, “Picosecond carrier lifetime in erbium-doped-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1128–1130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpi-cosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Werner, K. Ploog, and H. J. Queisser, “Interface-state measurements at Schottky contacts: a new admittance technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1080–1083 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear electroreflectance in silicon and silver,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Electric field effects on the dielectric constant of solids,” Phys. Rev. 153, 972–982 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

H. Dember, “Über eine photoelektronische Kraft in Kupferoxydul-Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 32, 554 (1931).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Electric field effects on the dielectric constant of solids,” Phys. Rev. 153, 972–982 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Atanasov, R.

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banyai, L.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

Bastian, G.

Beck, M.

Betz, M.

C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical injection of ballistic electrical currents in unbiased silicon,” Nat. Phys. 3, 632–635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

Bhat, R. D. R.

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Excitonic effects on the two-color coherent control of interband transitions in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 362–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, X. Y. Pan, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and A. L. Smirl, “Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Calculations of two-color interband optical injection and control of carrier population, spin, current, and spin current in bulk semiconductors,” arXiv:cond-mat/0601277 (unpublished).

Bhattacharya, P. K.

S. Gupta, S. Sethi, and P. K. Bhattacharya, “Picosecond carrier lifetime in erbium-doped-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1128–1130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear electroreflectance in silicon and silver,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical injection of ballistic electrical currents in unbiased silicon,” Nat. Phys. 3, 632–635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchanan, M.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596–3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calawa, A. R.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpi-cosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear electroreflectance in silicon and silver,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. B.

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D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
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E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596–3599 (1995).
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H. Zhang, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. B. Choi, and S. T. Cundiff, “Contactless photoconductive terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 223–225 (2011).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, S. B. Choi, S. Kannan, D. S. Dessau, J. E. Sipe, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical coherent control induced by an electric field in a semiconductor: a new manifestation of the Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247404 (2011).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, S. T. Cundiff, and J. E. Sipe, “Polarization dependence of the two-photon Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 233201 (2011).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, and S. T. Cundiff, “Uniform-field transverse electroreflectance using a mode-locked laser and a radio-frequency bias,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101104 (2010).
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R. L. Snider, J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Quantum interference control of photocurrent injection in Er-doped GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 333–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, P. A. Roos, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Smith, “Electrical measurement of carrier population modulation by two-color coherent control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, R. P. Smith, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, and S. T. Cundiff, “Solid-state carrier-envelope phase stabilization via quantum interference control of injected photocurrents,” Opt. Lett. 30, 735–737 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 362–368 (2005).
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T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
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M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
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Gibbs, H. M.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
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R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703–1706 (1996).
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Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, S. B. Choi, S. Kannan, D. S. Dessau, J. E. Sipe, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical coherent control induced by an electric field in a semiconductor: a new manifestation of the Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247404 (2011).
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M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
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Y. Kerachian, P. A. Marsden, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Dynamics of charge current gratings generated in GaAs by ultrafast quantum interference control,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125205 (2007).
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M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
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D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
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Klatt, G.

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M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
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M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
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Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
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N. Laman, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of currents in CdSe with a single optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2581–2583 (1999).
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Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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Li, X.

Linder, N.

M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
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E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596–3599 (1995).
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H. Zhao, E. J. Loren, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “Dynamics of charge currents ballistically injected in GaAs by quantum interference,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053510 (2008).
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Y. Kerachian, P. A. Marsden, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Dynamics of charge current gratings generated in GaAs by ultrafast quantum interference control,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125205 (2007).
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C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
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R. L. Snider, J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Quantum interference control of photocurrent injection in Er-doped GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 333–336 (2010).
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Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpi-cosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
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M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
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M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, X. Y. Pan, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and A. L. Smirl, “Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093709 (2005).
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Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
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R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, P. A. Roos, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Smith, “Electrical measurement of carrier population modulation by two-color coherent control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241115 (2006).
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P. A. Roos, X. Li, R. P. Smith, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, and S. T. Cundiff, “Solid-state carrier-envelope phase stabilization via quantum interference control of injected photocurrents,” Opt. Lett. 30, 735–737 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 362–368 (2005).
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S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
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Rivas, M. B.

R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

Roos, P.

Roos, P. A.

R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, P. A. Roos, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Smith, “Electrical measurement of carrier population modulation by two-color coherent control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, R. P. Smith, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, and S. T. Cundiff, “Solid-state carrier-envelope phase stabilization via quantum interference control of injected photocurrents,” Opt. Lett. 30, 735–737 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 362–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sethi, S.

S. Gupta, S. Sethi, and P. K. Bhattacharya, “Picosecond carrier lifetime in erbium-doped-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1128–1130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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H. Shen and M. Dutta, “Franz–Keldysh oscillations in modulation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2151–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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N. Laman, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of currents in CdSe with a single optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2581–2583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference in electron-hole generation in noncentrosymmetric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4192–4195 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J.

Sipe, J. E.

J. K. Wahlstrand, S. T. Cundiff, and J. E. Sipe, “Polarization dependence of the two-photon Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 233201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, S. B. Choi, S. Kannan, D. S. Dessau, J. E. Sipe, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical coherent control induced by an electric field in a semiconductor: a new manifestation of the Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand and J. E. Sipe, “Independent-particle theory of the Franz-Keldysh effect including interband coupling: Application to calculation of electroabsorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 075206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, X. Y. Pan, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and A. L. Smirl, “Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Excitonic effects on the two-color coherent control of interband transitions in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 362–368 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of currents in CdSe with a single optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2581–2583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference in electron-hole generation in noncentrosymmetric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4192–4195 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Calculations of two-color interband optical injection and control of carrier population, spin, current, and spin current in bulk semiconductors,” arXiv:cond-mat/0601277 (unpublished).

Smirl, A. L.

C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, E. J. Loren, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “Dynamics of charge currents ballistically injected in GaAs by quantum interference,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kerachian, P. A. Marsden, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Dynamics of charge current gratings generated in GaAs by ultrafast quantum interference control,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, X. Y. Pan, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and A. L. Smirl, “Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, F. W.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpi-cosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. P.

R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, P. A. Roos, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Smith, “Electrical measurement of carrier population modulation by two-color coherent control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Roos, X. Li, R. P. Smith, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, and S. T. Cundiff, “Solid-state carrier-envelope phase stabilization via quantum interference control of injected photocurrents,” Opt. Lett. 30, 735–737 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snider, R. L.

R. L. Snider, J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Quantum interference control of photocurrent injection in Er-doped GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 333–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical injection of ballistic electrical currents in unbiased silicon,” Nat. Phys. 3, 632–635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. J.

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, X. Y. Pan, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and A. L. Smirl, “Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streb, D.

M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tautz, S.

M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpi-cosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H.

A. Haché, J. Sipe, and H. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, E. J. Loren, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “Dynamics of charge currents ballistically injected in GaAs by quantum interference,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical injection of ballistic electrical currents in unbiased silicon,” Nat. Phys. 3, 632–635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kerachian, P. A. Marsden, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Dynamics of charge current gratings generated in GaAs by ultrafast quantum interference control,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, X. Y. Pan, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and A. L. Smirl, “Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of free-carrier density in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 085208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fraser, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference in electron-hole generation in noncentrosymmetric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4192–4195 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of currents in CdSe with a single optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2581–2583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, S. B. Choi, S. Kannan, D. S. Dessau, J. E. Sipe, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical coherent control induced by an electric field in a semiconductor: a new manifestation of the Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, S. T. Cundiff, and J. E. Sipe, “Polarization dependence of the two-photon Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 233201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. B. Choi, and S. T. Cundiff, “Contactless photoconductive terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 223–225 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand and J. E. Sipe, “Independent-particle theory of the Franz-Keldysh effect including interband coupling: Application to calculation of electroabsorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 075206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Snider, J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Quantum interference control of photocurrent injection in Er-doped GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 333–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, and S. T. Cundiff, “Uniform-field transverse electroreflectance using a mode-locked laser and a radio-frequency bias,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, P. A. Roos, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Smith, “Electrical measurement of carrier population modulation by two-color coherent control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596–3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J.

J. Werner, K. Ploog, and H. J. Queisser, “Interface-state measurements at Schottky contacts: a new admittance technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1080–1083 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitaker, J. F.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpi-cosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnerl, S.

Zawadzki, W.

P. Pfeffer and W. Zawadzki, “Five-level k · p model for the conduction and valence bands of GaAs and InP,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 12813–12828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, S. B. Choi, S. Kannan, D. S. Dessau, J. E. Sipe, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical coherent control induced by an electric field in a semiconductor: a new manifestation of the Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, J. K. Wahlstrand, S. B. Choi, and S. T. Cundiff, “Contactless photoconductive terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett. 36, 223–225 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, and S. T. Cundiff, “Uniform-field transverse electroreflectance using a mode-locked laser and a radio-frequency bias,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Snider, J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Quantum interference control of photocurrent injection in Er-doped GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 333–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, E. J. Loren, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “Dynamics of charge currents ballistically injected in GaAs by quantum interference,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. L. Snider, J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Quantum interference control of photocurrent injection in Er-doped GaAs,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 333–336 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, “Subpi-cosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276–3278 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruff, D. Streb, S. U. Dankowski, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, B. Knupfer, M. Kneissl, N. Linder, G. H. Dohler, and U. D. Keil, “Polarization dependence of the electroabsorption in low-temperature grown GaAs for above band-gap energies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2968–2970 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, S. Sethi, and P. K. Bhattacharya, “Picosecond carrier lifetime in erbium-doped-GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1128–1130 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of currents in CdSe with a single optical beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2581–2583 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972–1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, and S. T. Cundiff, “Uniform-field transverse electroreflectance using a mode-locked laser and a radio-frequency bias,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, P. A. Roos, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Smith, “Electrical measurement of carrier population modulation by two-color coherent control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Haché, J. Sipe, and H. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144–1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, X. Y. Pan, H. M. van Driel, J. E. Sipe, and A. L. Smirl, “Enhanced coherent control of carrier and spin density in a zinc-blende semiconductor by cascaded second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen and M. Dutta, “Franz–Keldysh oscillations in modulation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2151–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, E. J. Loren, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “Dynamics of charge currents ballistically injected in GaAs by quantum interference,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

R. P. Smith, P. A. Roos, J. K. Wahlstrand, J. A. Pipis, M. B. Rivas, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using the frequency comb of a quantum-interference-stabilized mode-locked laser,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 112, 289–296 (2007).

Nat. Phys. (1)

L. Costa, M. Betz, M. Spasenovic, A. D. Bristow, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical injection of ballistic electrical currents in unbiased silicon,” Nat. Phys. 3, 632–635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Electric field effects on the dielectric constant of solids,” Phys. Rev. 153, 972–982 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

P. Pfeffer and W. Zawadzki, “Five-level k · p model for the conduction and valence bands of GaAs and InP,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 12813–12828 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, S. T. Cundiff, and J. E. Sipe, “Polarization dependence of the two-photon Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 233201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand and J. E. Sipe, “Independent-particle theory of the Franz-Keldysh effect including interband coupling: Application to calculation of electroabsorption in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 075206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kerachian, P. A. Marsden, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Dynamics of charge current gratings generated in GaAs by ultrafast quantum interference control,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125205 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Excitonic effects on the two-color coherent control of interband transitions in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 075205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Sames, J. Menard, M. Betz, A. L. Smirl, and H. M. van Driel, “All-optical coherently controlled terahertz ac charge currents from excitons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 045208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of free-carrier density in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 085208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

C. H. Lee, R. K. Chang, and N. Bloembergen, “Nonlinear electroreflectance in silicon and silver,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 167–170 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffery, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596–3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703–1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, R. D. R. Bhat, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference control of ballistic pure spin currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 136603 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, H. Zhang, S. B. Choi, S. Kannan, D. S. Dessau, J. E. Sipe, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical coherent control induced by an electric field in a semiconductor: a new manifestation of the Franz-Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 247404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fraser, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, “Quantum interference in electron-hole generation in noncentrosymmetric semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4192–4195 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Werner, K. Ploog, and H. J. Queisser, “Interface-state measurements at Schottky contacts: a new admittance technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1080–1083 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

M. J. Stevens, R. D. R. Bhat, J. E. Sipe, H. M. van Driel, and A. L. Smirl, “Coherent control of carrier population and spin in (111)-GaAs,” Phys. Status Solidi B 238, 568–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

H. Dember, “Über eine photoelektronische Kraft in Kupferoxydul-Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 32, 554 (1931).

Other (1)

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, “Calculations of two-color interband optical injection and control of carrier population, spin, current, and spin current in bulk semiconductors,” arXiv:cond-mat/0601277 (unpublished).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculation of the spectral dependence of population QUIC using a 14-band model for EDC = 44 kV/cm. The arrows show the position of the half band gap h̄ωg/2 and the half split-off gap h̄ωSO/2. (a) Results for EDC along [001]. Black: Eω, E2ω along [001]; Red: Eω along [010], E2ω along [001]. (b) Results for EDC along [011]. Black: Eω, E2ω along [011]; Red: Eω along [01̄1], E2ω along [011].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Field-induced QUIC measured using an optical probe. (a) Data traces showing the differential transmission as a function of ϕ2ω – 2ϕω for zero, negative, and positive external bias. (b) Polarization dependence of the signal for EDC || [110]: E2ω, Eω || EDC (black); E2ωEDC, Eω || EDC (blue); EωEDC, E2ω || EDC (red); and E2ω, Eω || EDC (magenta).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bias dependence of field-induced QUIC. (a) All-optical measurement, showing a linear dependence of the signal on bias for the DC field along two directions with respect to the crystal structure: EDC || [001] (blue) and EDC || [011] (red). (b) Electrical measurement, showing non-monotonic dependence of the signal magnitude (black line). The phase of the signal (dashed red line) flips by nearly π when the magnitude dips near zero.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of signal on laser spot position. (a) Bias dependence of QUIC signal for 10 μm electrode spacing. Curves are shown for three different laser spot positions, separated by 2 μm, as shown in the inset. (b) Map of the QUIC signal magnitude as a function of bias and the position of the laser spot for a sample with 150 μm electrode spacing. The edges of the electrodes are at 40 and 190 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bias dependence of QUIC signal in a sample with 150 μm electrode spacing, for two laser spots spaced by 12 μm: nearer the electrode (solid) and farther away (dashed). The amplitude (black) and phase (red) of the QUIC signal are shown.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η I zzz ( ω ) = e 3 E DC 2 | V c v z | 2 2 h ¯ 3 ω 4 Ω ( Ai 2 ( 2 ω ω g Ω ) 2 Ω + 2 ω ω g Ω Ai 2 ( 2 ω ω g Ω ) [ A i ( 2 ω ω g Ω ) ] 2 ω )
n ˙ I n ˙ = 6 e 2 E DC E ω 2 E 2 ω ω ( 4 ω g 7 ω ) 16 e 2 E ω 4 ( 2 ω ω g ) 2 + 3 E 2 ω 2 μ h ¯ ω 4 ( 2 ω ω g ) .

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