Abstract

The exact formula is derived from the “sum over states” (SOS) quantum mechanical model for the frequency dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index coefficient n2 for centrosymmetric molecules in the off-resonance and non-resonant regimes. This expression is characterized by interference between terms from two-photon transitions from the ground state to the even-symmetry excited states and one-photon transitions between the ground state and odd-symmetry excited states. When contributions from the two-photon terms exceed those from the one-photon terms, the non-resonant intensity-dependent refractive index n2>0, and vice versa. Examples of the frequency dispersion for the three-level SOS model are given. Comparison is made with other existing theories.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, and C. W. Dirk, “Mechanisms of quadratic electrooptic modulation of dye-doped polymer systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(5), 842–858 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. B. J. Orr and J. F. Ward, “Perturbation theory of the non-linear optical polarization of an isolated system,” Mol. Phys. 20(3), 513–526 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Reviewed in S. Barlow and S. R. Marder, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in Functional Organic Materials: Syntheses, Strategies and Applications, T. J. J. Muller and U. H. F. Bunz, eds. (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 11.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Saturation of the all-optical Kerr effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 183902 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. S. Mathis, M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, A. Tan, S. Martinez, and G. Gampos, “Mechanisms of the nonlinear optical properties of squaraine dyes in poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(2), 871–883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Stegeman and H. Hu, “Refractive nonlinearity of linear symmetric molecules and polymers revisited,” Photon. Lett. Poland 1(4), 148–150 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. McWilliams, P. Hayden, and Z. Soos, “Theory of even-parity state and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 43(12), 9777–9791 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optics of conjugated polymers and linear molecules,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. (to be published).
  23. G. I. Stegeman and R. A. Stegeman, Nonlinear Optics: Phenomena, Materials and Devices (J. Wiley, in press).
  24. J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Pérez Moreno and M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits of the dispersion of the two-photon absorption cross section,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(19), 194101 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Kasparian, P. Béjot, and J.-P. Wolf, “Arbitrary-order nonlinear contribution to self-steepening,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2795–2797 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. W. Ettoumi, P. Béjot, Y. Petit, V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral dependence of purely-Kerr-driven filamentation in air and argon,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033826 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Saturation of the all-optical Kerr effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

G. Stegeman and H. Hu, “Refractive nonlinearity of linear symmetric molecules and polymers revisited,” Photon. Lett. Poland 1(4), 148–150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Pérez Moreno and M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits of the dispersion of the two-photon absorption cross section,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(19), 194101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Kuzyk, “Compact sum-over-states expression without dipolar terms for calculating nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. A 72(5), 053819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Y. Z. Yu, R. F. Shu, A. F. Garito, and C. H. Grossman, “Origin of negative χ3 in squaraines: experimental observation of two-photon states,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 786–788 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lu, G. Chen, J. W. Perry, and W. A. Goddard, “Valence-bond charge-transfer model for nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(23), 10679–10685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. W. Dirk, L. T. Cheng, and M. G. Kuzyk, “A simplified three-level model for describing the molecular third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 43(1), 27–36 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. McWilliams, P. Hayden, and Z. Soos, “Theory of even-parity state and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 43(12), 9777–9791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Damping corrections and the calculation of optical nonlinearities in organic molecules,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(3), 1636–1639 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, “Effects of centrosymmetry on the nonresonant electronic third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 41(9), 5098–5109 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Squarylium dye-doped polymer systems as quadratic electrooptic materials,” Chem. Mater. 2(1), 4–6 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, and C. W. Dirk, “Mechanisms of quadratic electrooptic modulation of dye-doped polymer systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(5), 842–858 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

B. J. Orr and J. F. Ward, “Perturbation theory of the non-linear optical polarization of an isolated system,” Mol. Phys. 20(3), 513–526 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. F. Ward, “Calculation of nonlinear optical susceptibilities using diagrammatic perturbation theory,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 37(1), 1–18 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, J. H.

J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Béjot, P.

J. Kasparian, P. Béjot, and J.-P. Wolf, “Arbitrary-order nonlinear contribution to self-steepening,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2795–2797 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ettoumi, P. Béjot, Y. Petit, V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral dependence of purely-Kerr-driven filamentation in air and argon,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brée, C.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Saturation of the all-optical Kerr effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

D. Lu, G. Chen, J. W. Perry, and W. A. Goddard, “Valence-bond charge-transfer model for nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(23), 10679–10685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. T.

C. W. Dirk, L. T. Cheng, and M. G. Kuzyk, “A simplified three-level model for describing the molecular third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 43(1), 27–36 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Chuang, K. C.

J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Demircan, A.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Saturation of the all-optical Kerr effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirk, C. W.

K. S. Mathis, M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, A. Tan, S. Martinez, and G. Gampos, “Mechanisms of the nonlinear optical properties of squaraine dyes in poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(2), 871–883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Dirk, L. T. Cheng, and M. G. Kuzyk, “A simplified three-level model for describing the molecular third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 43(1), 27–36 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, “Effects of centrosymmetry on the nonresonant electronic third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 41(9), 5098–5109 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Squarylium dye-doped polymer systems as quadratic electrooptic materials,” Chem. Mater. 2(1), 4–6 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Damping corrections and the calculation of optical nonlinearities in organic molecules,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(3), 1636–1639 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, and C. W. Dirk, “Mechanisms of quadratic electrooptic modulation of dye-doped polymer systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(5), 842–858 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ettoumi, W.

W. Ettoumi, P. Béjot, Y. Petit, V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral dependence of purely-Kerr-driven filamentation in air and argon,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6613–6620 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faucher, O.

Franco, M.

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gampos, G.

Garito, A. F.

Goddard, W. A.

D. Lu, G. Chen, J. W. Perry, and W. A. Goddard, “Valence-bond charge-transfer model for nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(23), 10679–10685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, C. H.

Hayden, P.

P. McWilliams, P. Hayden, and Z. Soos, “Theory of even-parity state and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 43(12), 9777–9791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, E.

Hu, H.

G. Stegeman and H. Hu, “Refractive nonlinearity of linear symmetric molecules and polymers revisited,” Photon. Lett. Poland 1(4), 148–150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hull, D. L.

J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, P. Béjot, and J.-P. Wolf, “Arbitrary-order nonlinear contribution to self-steepening,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2795–2797 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6613–6620 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ettoumi, P. Béjot, Y. Petit, V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral dependence of purely-Kerr-driven filamentation in air and argon,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khaydarov, J. D. V.

J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kuzyk, M. G.

J. Pérez Moreno and M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits of the dispersion of the two-photon absorption cross section,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(19), 194101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Kuzyk, “Compact sum-over-states expression without dipolar terms for calculating nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. A 72(5), 053819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits on third-order molecular susceptibilities,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1183–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Mathis, M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, A. Tan, S. Martinez, and G. Gampos, “Mechanisms of the nonlinear optical properties of squaraine dyes in poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(2), 871–883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Dirk, L. T. Cheng, and M. G. Kuzyk, “A simplified three-level model for describing the molecular third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 43(1), 27–36 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, “Effects of centrosymmetry on the nonresonant electronic third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 41(9), 5098–5109 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Squarylium dye-doped polymer systems as quadratic electrooptic materials,” Chem. Mater. 2(1), 4–6 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Damping corrections and the calculation of optical nonlinearities in organic molecules,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(3), 1636–1639 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, and C. W. Dirk, “Mechanisms of quadratic electrooptic modulation of dye-doped polymer systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(5), 842–858 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lange, R.

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lavorel, B.

Loriot, V.

Lu, D.

D. Lu, G. Chen, J. W. Perry, and W. A. Goddard, “Valence-bond charge-transfer model for nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(23), 10679–10685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, S.

Mathis, K. S.

McWilliams, P.

P. McWilliams, P. Hayden, and Z. Soos, “Theory of even-parity state and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 43(12), 9777–9791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E.

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

B. J. Orr and J. F. Ward, “Perturbation theory of the non-linear optical polarization of an isolated system,” Mol. Phys. 20(3), 513–526 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Moreno, J.

J. Pérez Moreno and M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits of the dispersion of the two-photon absorption cross section,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(19), 194101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

D. Lu, G. Chen, J. W. Perry, and W. A. Goddard, “Valence-bond charge-transfer model for nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(23), 10679–10685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petit, Y.

W. Ettoumi, P. Béjot, Y. Petit, V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral dependence of purely-Kerr-driven filamentation in air and argon,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6613–6620 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ripoche, J.

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

Shu, R. F.

Singer, K. D.

J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

Soos, Z.

P. McWilliams, P. Hayden, and Z. Soos, “Theory of even-parity state and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 43(12), 9777–9791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

G. Stegeman and H. Hu, “Refractive nonlinearity of linear symmetric molecules and polymers revisited,” Photon. Lett. Poland 1(4), 148–150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optics of conjugated polymers and linear molecules,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. (to be published).

G. I. Stegeman and R. A. Stegeman, Nonlinear Optics: Phenomena, Materials and Devices (J. Wiley, in press).

Stegeman, R. A.

G. I. Stegeman and R. A. Stegeman, Nonlinear Optics: Phenomena, Materials and Devices (J. Wiley, in press).

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Saturation of the all-optical Kerr effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 183902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, A.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Ward, J. F.

B. J. Orr and J. F. Ward, “Perturbation theory of the non-linear optical polarization of an isolated system,” Mol. Phys. 20(3), 513–526 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ward, “Calculation of nonlinear optical susceptibilities using diagrammatic perturbation theory,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 37(1), 1–18 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, P. Béjot, and J.-P. Wolf, “Arbitrary-order nonlinear contribution to self-steepening,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2795–2797 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ettoumi, P. Béjot, Y. Petit, V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral dependence of purely-Kerr-driven filamentation in air and argon,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Ettoumi, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Generalized Miller formulae,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6613–6620 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. Z.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Squarylium dye-doped polymer systems as quadratic electrooptic materials,” Chem. Mater. 2(1), 4–6 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Quantum Chem. (1)

C. W. Dirk, L. T. Cheng, and M. G. Kuzyk, “A simplified three-level model for describing the molecular third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 43(1), 27–36 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Lu, G. Chen, J. W. Perry, and W. A. Goddard, “Valence-bond charge-transfer model for nonlinear optical properties of charge-transfer organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(23), 10679–10685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Pérez Moreno and M. G. Kuzyk, “Fundamental limits of the dispersion of the two-photon absorption cross section,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(19), 194101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. H. Andrews, J. D. V. Khaydarov, K. D. Singer, D. L. Hull, and K. C. Chuang, “Characterization of excited states of centrosymmetric and noncentrosymmetric squaraines by third-harmonic spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12(12), 2360–2371 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Mol. Phys. (1)

B. J. Orr and J. F. Ward, “Perturbation theory of the non-linear optical polarization of an isolated system,” Mol. Phys. 20(3), 513–526 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optics of conjugated polymers and linear molecules,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. (to be published).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135(4-6), 310–314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

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Photon. Lett. Poland (1)

G. Stegeman and H. Hu, “Refractive nonlinearity of linear symmetric molecules and polymers revisited,” Photon. Lett. Poland 1(4), 148–150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

W. Ettoumi, P. Béjot, Y. Petit, V. Loriot, E. Hertz, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Spectral dependence of purely-Kerr-driven filamentation in air and argon,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033826 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk, “Compact sum-over-states expression without dipolar terms for calculating nonlinear susceptibilities,” Phys. Rev. A 72(5), 053819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, “Effects of centrosymmetry on the nonresonant electronic third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility,” Phys. Rev. A 41(9), 5098–5109 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. McWilliams, P. Hayden, and Z. Soos, “Theory of even-parity state and two-photon spectra of conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 43(12), 9777–9791 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. W. Dirk and M. G. Kuzyk, “Damping corrections and the calculation of optical nonlinearities in organic molecules,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 41(3), 1636–1639 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Saturation of the all-optical Kerr effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(18), 183902 (2011).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Reviewed in S. Barlow and S. R. Marder, “Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials,” in Functional Organic Materials: Syntheses, Strategies and Applications, T. J. J. Muller and U. H. F. Bunz, eds. (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 11.

Reviewed in J. M. Hales and J. W. Perry, “Organic and polymeric 3rd-order nonlinear optical materials and device applications,” in Introduction to Organic Electronic and Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, S.-S. Sun and L. Dalton, eds. (CRC, 2008), Chap. 17.

G. I. Stegeman and R. A. Stegeman, Nonlinear Optics: Phenomena, Materials and Devices (J. Wiley, in press).

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