Abstract

New diffractive imaging techniques using coherent x-ray beams have made possible nanometer-scale resolution imaging by replacing the optics in a microscope with an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. However, to date very high resolution imaging (< 40nm) was limited to large-scale synchrotron facilities. Here, we present a significant advance in image resolution and capabilities for desktop soft x-ray microscopes that will enable widespread applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Using 13nm high harmonic beams, we demonstrate a record 22nm spatial resolution for any tabletop x-ray microscope. Finally, we show that unique information about the sample can be obtained by extracting 3-D information at very high numerical apertures.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

R. Henriques, C. Griffiths, E. Hesper Rego, and M. M. Mhlanga, “PALM and STORM: unlocking live-cell super-resolution,” Biopolymers 95(5), 322–331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(16), 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature 463(7278), 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Wachulak, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Sub-70 nm resolution tabletop microscopy at 13.8 nm using a compact laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2337–2339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrener, J. Nelson, X. Huang, S. Marchesini, D. Shapiro, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18598–18614 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Chen, R. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. Peele, G. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. Quiney, and K. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1618–1620 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Miao, J. Steinbrener, J. Nelson, D. Shapiro, A. Stewart, J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13541–13553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11057–11065 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, C. A. Brewer, F. Pedaci, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, Y. Liu, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Wachulak, M. C. Marconi, D. T. Attwood, J. J. Rocca, and C. S. Menoni, “Microscopy of extreme ultraviolet lithography masks with 13.2 nm tabletop laser illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 271–273 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(21), 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 158101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol. 162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(1), 24–27 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1214–1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of high-throughput, high-damage-threshold beam separator for 13 nm high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1316–1318 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Probl. 21(1), 37–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy 102(2), 93–100 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Elser, “Random projections and the optimization of an algorithm for phase retrieval,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 36(12), 2995–3007 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell 15(3), 957–962 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64(6), 066613 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Squier and M. Müller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: a review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(7), 2855 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

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M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
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Bajt, S.

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
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H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
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X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1357–1359 (2004).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bartnik, A.

Barty, A.

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
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Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
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Beetz, T.

Benner, H.

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benner, W. H.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bertilson, M.

Billon, M.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogan, M. J.

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

Bostedt, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bourhis, E.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutet, S.

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, C.

Brewer, C. A.

Brizuela, F.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burmeister, F.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caleman, C.

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(12), 839–843 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J.-P.

A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 028104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

Chapman, H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43(19), 194015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012051 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1640 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration for tabletop soft x-ray coherent diffractive imaging. A femtosecond laser is focused into a gas-filled waveguide. Bright, coherent 13 nm high harmonic beams are produced and focused into the sample. The resultant diffraction pattern is captured on a CCD camera and the image is retrieved using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sub-25nm resolution confirmed using a knife-edge test. (a), (e) Scanning electron microscope images of samples J409 and J407 respectively. (b), (f) Object intensities reconstructed using the HIO algorithm. (c), (g) Scatter patterns for objects J409 and J407 respectively. (d) Lineout showing an edge with a ~22nm 10% to 90% dimension. (h) Object J407 displays minimum feature sizes of ~50nm (e−2 diameter) providing a rough estimate of resolution. The lineouts in (d) and (h) were taken along profiles marked in (b) and (f) by white dashed lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Filtered phase-retrieval transfer-function. Features in the WPRTF provide a measure of the smallest sample features and the image resolution of reconstructed images. For example, the WPRTF for sample J407 shows a “knee” structure around 50nm half-period resolution, which corresponds to the feature size of the slots of ~50nm. The cutoff WPRTF values are between 19 and 22nm, in excellent agreement with the knife-edge measurements shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sub-30nm resolution from a 30 second exposure. Increases in HHG flux enabled by better differential pumping have led to a dramatic decrease in required exposure times. This has enabled 25 nm spatial resolution in an image with only 30 second exposure time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Media 1) Demonstration of ankylography with a high-NA diffraction pattern. (a) Diffraction pattern mapped onto the surface of the Ewald sphere accompanied by a projection onto the plane. (b) Isosurface rendering of the 3-D ankylographic reconstruction. (c) Same as in (b) showing tilt of sample with respect to the detector. (d) Same as in (b) showing the relative size difference between features in the sample with emphasis in the z-direction, accompanied by a projection onto the plane.

Equations (2)

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PRTF(f)= f=const φ(f).
W(f)= | S(f) | 2 | S(f) | 2 + | N(f) | 2

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