Abstract

We report on the fabrication of efficient organic distributed feedback (DFB) lasers with thermally-nanoimprinted active films, emitting between 565 and 580 nm. The use of thermal-NIL has allowed, as opposed to room temperature or solvent-assisted techniques, high grating quality and excellent modulation depth. The 155°C heat exposure of the NIL process, does not significantly affect the thermal and optical properties of the active material (polystyrene films doped with a perylenediimide derivative). These devices combine a simple and low-cost preparation method with good laser characteristics, i.e. thresholds of 1 μJ/pulse, single-mode emission with linewidths below 0.2 nm and photostability half-lives of ~ 105 pump pulses under ambient conditions. In comparison to more standard DFBs with gratings on the substrate, their fabrication is much easier, while they show a similar laser performance.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306_1–163306_3 (2008).
  7. M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).
  8. M. B. Christiansen, J. M. Lopacinska, M. H. Jakobsen, N. A. Mortensen, M. Dufva, and A. Kristensen, “Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2722–2730 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).
  28. E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Watanabe, H. So, Y. Oki, S. Akine, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond-pulse-pumped distributed-feedback thick-film waveguide blue laser using fluorescent brightener 135,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 072105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, J. M. Lopacinska, M. H. Jakobsen, N. A. Mortensen, M. Dufva, and A. Kristensen, “Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2722–2730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306_1–163306_3 (2008).

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).

2007

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, G. Gigli, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. Perissinotto, and G. Lanzani, “Effects of morphology and optical contrast in organic distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, “Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 621–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye lasers: recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(21), 4745–4763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1999

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akine, S.

H. Watanabe, H. So, Y. Oki, S. Akine, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond-pulse-pumped distributed-feedback thick-film waveguide blue laser using fluorescent brightener 135,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 072105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berleb, S.

Boj, P. G.

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

Buß, T.

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calzado, E. M.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chisaki, Y.

Choi, S. S.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).

Christiansen, M. B.

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, J. M. Lopacinska, M. H. Jakobsen, N. A. Mortensen, M. Dufva, and A. Kristensen, “Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2722–2730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, J.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye lasers: recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(21), 4745–4763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Díaz García, M. A.

Díaz-García, M. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dufva, M.

Eden, J. G.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).

Fan, X.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, “Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 621–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

García-Moreno, I.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye lasers: recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(21), 4745–4763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

M. Salerno, G. Gigli, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. Perissinotto, and G. Lanzani, “Effects of morphology and optical contrast in organic distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

Gómez, R.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henssler, J. T.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

Hernández, V.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

Hide, F.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, M. H.

Jo?rgensen, M. M.

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, M. M.

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Juarros, A.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Kristensen, A.

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, J. M. Lopacinska, M. H. Jakobsen, N. A. Mortensen, M. Dufva, and A. Kristensen, “Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as optofluidic cell sensors,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2722–2730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanzani, G.

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, G. Gigli, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. Perissinotto, and G. Lanzani, “Effects of morphology and optical contrast in organic distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ledochowitsch, P.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

Lopacinska, J. M.

López Navarrete, J. T.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

Lu, M.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).

Maeda, M.

Matzger, A. J.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

Mednick, S. R.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merino, S.

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

Moses, D.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mückl, A. G.

Namdas, E. B.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Fuster, V.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

O’ Faolain, L.

Oki, Y.

H. Watanabe, H. So, Y. Oki, S. Akine, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond-pulse-pumped distributed-feedback thick-film waveguide blue laser using fluorescent brightener 135,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 072105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 41(24), 5030–5035 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omatsu, T.

H. Watanabe, H. So, Y. Oki, S. Akine, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond-pulse-pumped distributed-feedback thick-film waveguide blue laser using fluorescent brightener 135,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 072105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Q.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perissinotto, S.

M. Salerno, G. Gigli, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. Perissinotto, and G. Lanzani, “Effects of morphology and optical contrast in organic distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, S. R.

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Postigo, P. A.

Qian, G.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, “Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 621–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quintana, J. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 463–470 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, M. G.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

Ramírez, M. G.

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Retolaza, A.

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ribierre, J. C.

Riechel, S.

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

M. Salerno, G. Gigli, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. Perissinotto, and G. Lanzani, “Effects of morphology and optical contrast in organic distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306_1–163306_3 (2008).

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sastre, R.

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye lasers: recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(21), 4745–4763 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Segura, J. L.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L. C.

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

So, H.

H. Watanabe, H. So, Y. Oki, S. Akine, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond-pulse-pumped distributed-feedback thick-film waveguide blue laser using fluorescent brightener 135,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 072105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suganuma, N.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tong, M.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
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Trabadelo, V.

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsiminis, G.

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306_1–163306_3 (2008).

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasdekis, A. E.

Villalvilla, J. M.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, P. A. Postigo, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Blue surface-emitting distributed feedback lasers based on TPD-doped films,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 463–470 (2010).
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V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
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E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz García, “Amplified spontaneous emission in polymer films doped with a perylenediimide derivative,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3836–3842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, C. J.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).

Wang, M.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, “Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 621–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, “Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 621–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

H. Watanabe, H. So, Y. Oki, S. Akine, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond-pulse-pumped distributed-feedback thick-film waveguide blue laser using fluorescent brightener 135,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 072105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

Xia, R.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306_1–163306_3 (2008).

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, “Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 621–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiura, T.

Yuen, J. D.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

M. Salerno, G. Gigli, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. Perissinotto, and G. Lanzani, “Effects of morphology and optical contrast in organic distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low thresholds in polymers lasers on conductive substrates by distributed feedback nanoimprinting: Progress toward electrically pumped plastic lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. M. Jo̸rgensen, S. R. Petersen, M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: a polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306_1–163306_3 (2008).

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label free biosensor incorporating a replica-molded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502_1–261502_3 (2008).

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, J. M. Villalvilla, M. A. Díaz-García, V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, and S. Merino, “Highly photostable organic distributed feedback laser emitting at 573 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, “Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3257–3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Salerno, G. Gigli, M. Zavelani-Rossi, S. Perissinotto, and G. Lanzani, “Effects of morphology and optical contrast in organic distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, “Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 6959–6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

V. Navarro-Fuster, E. M. Calzado, M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, J. T. Henssler, A. J. Matzger, V. Hernández, J. T. López Navarrete, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of ring fusion on the amplified spontaneous emission properties of oligothiophenes,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(36), 6556–6567 (2009).

J. Micromech. Microeng.

M. B. Christiansen, T. Buß, C. L. C. Smith, S. R. Petersen, M. M. Jorgensen, and A. Kristensen, “Single mode dye-doped polymer photonic crystal lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(11), 115025 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, R. Gómez, J. L. Segura, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Effect of structural modifications in the spectral and laser properties of perylenediimide derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13595–13605 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 9A), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Watanabe, H. So, Y. Oki, S. Akine, and T. Omatsu, “Picosecond-pulse-pumped distributed-feedback thick-film waveguide blue laser using fluorescent brightener 135,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 072105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

V. Trabadelo, A. Juarros, A. Retolaza, S. Merino, M. G. Ramírez, V. Navarro-Fuster, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Highly photostable solid-state organic distributed feedback laser fabricated via thermal nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 1428–1430 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. Clark and G. Lanzani, “Organic photonics for communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 438–446 (2010).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

Y. Yang, M. Wang, G. Qian, Z. Wang, and X. Fan, “Laser properties and photostabilities of laser dyes doped in ORMOSILs,” Opt. Mater. 24(4), 621–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Concentration dependence of amplified spontaneous emission in organic-based waveguides,” Org. Electron. 7(5), 319–329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye lasers: recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5(21), 4745–4763 (2003).
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F. Hide, M. A. Díaz-García, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymers: a new class of solid-state laser materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical structure of PDI-C6; (b) Schematic of the DFB device (Λ = 368 nm, d = 260 nm, h = 320-890 nm), (c) SEM image and (d) AFM profile of the grating engraved on the active film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output intensity (a) and linewidth (b) versus pump pulse energy for two DFB devices based on active films of thickness h = 590 nm (full squares) and h = 800 nm (open circles). Data for the former device from a region without grating, performed before (full triangles) and after (open squares) the thermal-NIL process have been included to illustrate the effect of the thermal treatment in the emission properties.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Emission spectrum above threshold of a DFB device based on an active film of thickness h = 323 nm (thick full line). PL (thin full line) and ASE (dashed line) spectra of the film in a region without grating are also included. (b) High-resolution spectra of the device above (full line) and below (dashed line) threshold.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser wavelength of DFB devices with active films of different thickness h. Symbols: Experimental data; Thick full line: “Model h+(d/2)”; Dashed line: “Model average neff”; Thin full line: “Model h”.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

DFB thresholds as a function of emission wavelength (full squares, left axis) and inverse of the intensity of the PL(0-1) transition (open circles, right axis). Solid lines are guides to the eye.

Equations (1)

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n eff av = ( n eff,h 2 + n eff,h+d 2 )/2

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