Abstract

A major challenge for plasmonics as an enabling technology for quantum information processing is the realization of active spatio-temporal control of light on the nanoscale. The use of phase-shaped pulses or beams enforces specific requirements for on-chip integration and imposes strict design limitations. We introduce here an alternative approach, which is based on exploiting the strong sub-wavelength spatial phase modulation in the near-field of resonantly-excited high-Q optical microcavities integrated into plasmonic nanocircuits. Our theoretical analysis reveals the formation of areas of circulating powerflow (optical vortices) in the near-fields of optical microcavities, whose positions and mutual coupling can be controlled by tuning the microcavities parameters and the excitation wavelength. We show that optical powerflow though nanoscale plasmonic structures can be dynamically molded by engineering interactions of microcavity-induced optical vortices with noble-metal nanoparticles. The proposed strategy of re-configuring plasmonic nanocircuits via locally-addressable photonic elements opens the way to develop chip-integrated optoplasmonic switching architectures, which is crucial for implementation of quantum information nanocircuits.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

G. A. Wurtz, R. Pollard, W. Hendren, G. P. Wiederrecht, D. J. Gosztola, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Designed ultrafast optical nonlinearity in a plasmonic nanorod metamaterial enhanced by nonlocality,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(2), 107–111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gjonaj, J. Aulbach, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, L. Kuipers, and A. Lagendijk, “Active spatial control of plasmonic fields,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 360–363 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Boriskina and B. M. Reinhard, “Spectrally and spatially configurable superlenses for optoplasmonic nanocircuits,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3147–3151 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Santiago-Cordoba, S. V. Boriskina, F. Vollmer, and M. C. Demirel, “Nanoparticle-based protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, “Gouy phase anomaly in photonic nanojets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Mao, M. Li, W. Y. Leung, K.-M. Ho, and L. Dong, “Photonic-plasmonic integration through the fusion of photonic crystal cavity and metallic structure,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 059501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Cho, C. O. Aspetti, M. E. Turk, J. M. Kikkawa, S.-W. Nam, and R. Agarwal, “Tailoring hot-exciton emission and lifetimes in semiconducting nanowires via whispering-gallery nanocavity plasmons,” Nat. Mater. 10(9), 669–675 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yan, S. V. Boriskina, and B. M. Reinhard, “Optimizing gold nanoparticle cluster configurations (n ≤ 7) for array applications,” J. Phys. Chem. C Nanomater. Interfaces 115(11), 4578–4583 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahmani, B. Lukiyanchuk, B. Ng, A. Tavakkoli K G, Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Generation of pronounced Fano resonances and tuning of subwavelength spatial light distribution in plasmonic pentamers,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4949–4956 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 529–536 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kim, W. Zhang, and B. T. Cunningham, “Coupling discrete metal nanoparticles to photonic crystal surface resonant modes and application to Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4300–4309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 891–895 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bao, N. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in planar silver nanosphere clusters,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 333–339 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Alexander, K. Skinner, S. Zhang, H. Wei, and R. Lopez, “Tunable SERS in gold nanorod dimers through strain control on an elastomeric substrate,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4488–4493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastomerically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1787–1792 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, S. Cunovic, F. Dimler, A. Fischer, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Schneider, F. Steeb, C. Strüber, and D. V. Voronine, “Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(12), 5329–5333 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Volpe, G. Molina-Terriza, and R. Quidant, “Deterministic subwavelength control of light confinement in nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(21), 216802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Huang, J. Kern, P. Geisler, P. Weinmann, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2105–2110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Halas, “Connecting the dots: reinventing optics for nanoscale dimensions,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(10), 3643–3644 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M.-W. Chu, V. Myroshnychenko, C. H. Chen, J.-P. Deng, C.-Y. Mou, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Probing bright and dark surface-plasmon modes in individual and coupled noble metal nanoparticles using an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 399–404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Volpe, S. Cherukulappurath, R. Juanola Parramon, G. Molina-Terriza, and R. Quidant, “Controlling the optical near field of nanoantennas with spatial phase-shaped beams,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3608–3611 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457(7228), 455–458 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N.-N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, “A nonvolatile plasmonic switch employing photochromic molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1506–1510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. Bloemer, and A. Desyatnikov, “Optical vortices during a superresolution process in a metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Bayer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446(7133), 301–304 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Combining micron-size glass spheres with silver nanoparticles to produce extraordinary field enhancements for surface-enhanced Raman scattering applications,” Isr. J. Chem. 46, 293–297 (2006).

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G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. Bloemer, and A. Desyatnikov, “Optical vortices during a superresolution process in a metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. A 77(4), 043825 (2008).
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ACS Nano

A. Devilez, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, A. Ishikawa, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Hybrid photonic-plasmonic crystal nanocavities,” ACS Nano 5(4), 2831–2838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, S. Muhlig, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, “Gouy phase anomaly in photonic nanojets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041107 (2010).
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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (143 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (334 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1869 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (877 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the electric field intensity and phase in the vicinity of a high-Q TE27,1 WGM resonance in a single 5.6µm-diameter polysterene microsphere. (a,b) Calculated frequency spectra of the total electric field intensity, |E|2 (a), and a phase of the major E-field component, Arg(Ey) (b). The field is evaluated at the point on the sphere axis 100nm above the surface. The insets show a schematic of the scattering problem geometry (a) and the WGM field intensity map at the resonance. (c,d) Single-frame excerpts from movies of the spatial maps of Re(Ey) (Media 1, c) and Arg(Ey) (Media 2, d) evolution as a function of wavelength (shown at the TE27,1 resonance frequency).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Formation of photonic-plasmonic modes in hybrid optoplasmonic structures. (a) A schematic of an optoplasmonic structure composed of an Au dimer-gap nanoantenna coupled to a dielectric microsphere. (b,c) Frequency spectra (red) of the intensity enhancement in the dimer gap around TE27,1 resonance of the sphere for D = 5.6µm, h = 100nm, no = 1.59, w = 25nm, and d = 30nm (b) or d = 150nm (c). The corresponding spectra for the isolated dimer (green) and the isolated microsphere (blue) are shown for comparison. (d,e) Spatial maps of |E|2 (d) and Re(Ey) (e) at the wavelength of the resonant peak observed in (b). (f-i) Spatial maps of |E|2 (f,h) and Re(Ey) (g,i) at the wavelengths of the resonant peak (f,g) and dip (h,i) observed in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Manipulation of optical powerflow through the nanoantenna gap with vortex nanogates. (a,b) Comparison of the intensity enhancement spectrum in the gap of microsphere-coupled Au dimer (a) with those of the Poynting vector amplitude and phase at the gap center (b) (D = 5.6µm, h = 100nm, w = 25nm, d = 150nm, no = 1.59). Crosses mark the wavelengths at which there is no optical powerflow through the gap (‘gate closed’), and arrows indicate the direction of the powerflow in the corresponding frequency range (‘gate open Up’ or ‘gate open Down’).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Operation of the optoplasmonic vortex nanogate. (a-f) Single-frame excerpts from movies of the Poynting vector intensity |S| maps and the optical power flow through the nanoantenna gap at the frequencies around the photonic-plasmonic Fano resonance shown in Fig. 3. The arrows point into the direction of the local powerflow, and the length of each arrow is proportional to the local value of the Poynting vector amplitude. Spatial maps are shown in the y-z plane at x = 0 (a-c) and in the x-z plane at y = 0 (Media 3, d-f), respectively. Solid circles indicate the boundaries of the Au nanospheres, and the dotted circles are the projections of the nanospheres on the plane cutting through the center of the dimer gap. (g-i) Schematics of the vortex-operated nanogates in the ‘closed’, ‘open Down’ and ‘open Up’ positions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase-operated nanoscale field intensity switching in the plasmonic nanoparticle chain. (a) A schematic of an optoplasmonic structure composed of a linear chain of Au nanoparticles coupled to a dielectric microsphere (D = 1.2µm, h = 90nm, w = 20nm, d = 130nm, no = 2.4). The points where the field intensity is monitored are marked as P1 and P2. (b) The near-field intensity spectra evaluated at P1 (blue) and P2 (red). The three select wavelength λ1 = 666.74nm, λ2 = 667.45nm, and λ3 = 667.87nm mark the spectral points where the intensities at P1 and P2 are either equal (λ2) or one of them reaches its peak value (λ1, λ3). (c-e) Single-frame excerpts from the movie (Media 4) showing the evolution of the electric field intensity (|E|2/|E0|2) distribution and the optical power flow through the nanoparticle chain in the y-z plane at x = 0 at λ1, λ2 and λ3, respectively. The arrows point in the direction of the local powerflow, and the length of each arrow is proportional to the local value of the Poynting vector amplitude.

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