Abstract

Ultrahigh sensitivity is achieved in a new active sensor structure: coupled optofluidic ring laser. The sensor consists of one ring laser and one optofluidic tube. The emission intensity of the multimode whispering gallery resonance from the coupled ring laser is strongly modulated. By using the optofluidic tube as the sensing element, and monitoring the envelope shift of the modulated lasing spectrum, we achieved a sensitivity of 5930 nm/RIU, which is two orders of magnitude higher than a conventional ring resonator sensor.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Enhancing the sensitivity of a whispering-gallery mode microsphere sensor by a high-refractive-index surface layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1434–1441 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Li and X. D. Fan, “Characterization of sensing capability of optofluidic ring resonator biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Shang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Single-frequency coupled asymmetric microcavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1150–1152 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. W. Zhang, H. Li, X. Tu, X. Wu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Suppression and hopping of whispering gallery modes in multiple-ring-coupled microcavity lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 483–488 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998).

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

H. Li and X. D. Fan, “Characterization of sensing capability of optofluidic ring resonator biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

L. Shang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Single-frequency coupled asymmetric microcavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1150–1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Xu, P. Horak, and G. Brambilla, “Optical microfiber coil resonator refractometric sensor,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7888–7893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Enhancing the sensitivity of a whispering-gallery mode microsphere sensor by a high-refractive-index surface layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1434–1441 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Chen, D.-R.

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. D.

H. Li and X. D. Fan, “Characterization of sensing capability of optofluidic ring resonator biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francois, A.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanumegowda, N. M.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Himmelhaus, M.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

X. W. Zhang, H. Li, X. Tu, X. Wu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Suppression and hopping of whispering gallery modes in multiple-ring-coupled microcavity lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 483–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li and X. D. Fan, “Characterization of sensing capability of optofluidic ring resonator biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Y.

Oveys, H.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shang, L.

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Shang, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Single-frequency coupled asymmetric microcavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1150–1152 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suter, J.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Tu, X.

X. W. Zhang, H. Li, X. Tu, X. Wu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Suppression and hopping of whispering gallery modes in multiple-ring-coupled microcavity lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 483–488 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

Xiao, Y.-F.

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Xu, L.

Yang, L.

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. W.

Zhu, H.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. G.

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zourob, M.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Li and X. D. Fan, “Characterization of sensing capability of optofluidic ring resonator biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(1), 011105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. D. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(1), 28–35 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Li, L. Shang, X. Tu, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Coupling variation induced ultrasensitive label-free biosensing by using single mode coupled microcavity laser,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16612–16613 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. G. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The fabrication process of an optofluidic coupled cavity; (b) The cross-section of the coupled cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra from a 129 μm/125 μm coupled cavity. Upper plot: optofluidic channel is empty; Lower plot: DMSO flows through the optofluidic channel, red dash line is a Lorentz-shape fitted envelope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of a coupled optofluidic ring laser when DMSO/water flows through the optofluidic channel. From top to bottom, the emission envelope moves to shorter wavelength when fluid refractive index increases. Red arrow indicates the envelope shift.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fitted envelope center versus fluid refractive index. A linear fitting gives a sensitivity of 5930 ± 360 nm/RIU.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated modulation spectra of a coupled ring laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Shift of envelope center wavelength versus fluid refractive index. Red line is a linear fitted line, sensitivity is 5935 nm/RIU.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluctuation of the envelope center versus time for different refractive indices of fluid.

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