Abstract

We have investigated the propagation of the long-range mode (LRSP) and the short-range mode (SRSP) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) along the waveguide made from Au film and quantum wells (QWs) gain medium. Influenced by the gain spectral nonuniformity, the SRSP showed narrower spectrum than the LRSP in output, denoting that the SRSP propagation was supported by stimulated amplification (SA) in electrically-pumped QWs. An SRSP output power as large as 1.6 times of that of the LRSP was obtained over a travelling distance of 80μm. The mechanism of SA-supported SRSP propagation can be adopted for electrical modulation of SPPs.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(5), 771–782 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. Yu. Fedyanin and A. V. Arsenin, “Surface plasmon polariton amplification in metal-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12524–12531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

X. J. Zhang, Y. C. Li, T. Li, S. Y. Lee, C. G. Feng, L. B. Wang, and T. Mei, “Gain-assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons via electrically pumped quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3075–3077 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. J. Yang, N. C. Kim, J. B. Li, M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Surface plasmons amplifications in single Ag nanoring,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4006–4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, M. G. Nielsen, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18633–18641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16327–16334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Gain assisted surface plasmon polariton in quantum wells structures,” Opt. Express 15(1), 176–182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. A. Maier, “Gain-assisted propagation of electromagnetic energy in subwavelength surface plasmon polariton gap waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 258(2), 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(5), 771–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, “Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(9), 3289–3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. Broberg and S. Lindgren, “Refractive-index of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y layers and InP in the transparent wavelength region,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 3376–3381 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Chilwell and I. Hodgkinson, “Thin-films field-transfer matrix theory of planar multilayer waveguides and reflection from prism-loaded waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1(7), 742–753 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adegoke, J. A.

Aitchison, J. S.

Alam, M. Z.

Albrektsen, O.

Arsenin, A. V.

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Babuty, A.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahoura, M.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, G.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

Bolger, P. M.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16327–16334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bousseksou, A.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Bramant, P.

Broberg, B.

B. Broberg and S. Lindgren, “Refractive-index of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y layers and InP in the transparent wavelength region,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 3376–3381 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. K.

Cheng, M. T.

Chilwell, J.

Chuang, S. L.

J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(5), 771–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Colas des Francs, G.

Colombelli, R.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Wilde, Y.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16327–16334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Francs, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyen, I. M.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Fedyanin, D. Yu.

Feng, C. G.

Feng, D. Z.

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geluk, E. J.

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16327–16334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z. H.

Haupt, R.

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, “Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(9), 3289–3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, S. G.

Hill, M. T.

Hodgkinson, I.

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karouta, F.

Keating, T.

J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(5), 771–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. C.

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagae, L.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

Leong, E. S. P.

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. B.

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. B.

Li, T.

Li, Y. C.

Liebscher, L.

Lindgren, S.

B. Broberg and S. Lindgren, “Refractive-index of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y layers and InP in the transparent wavelength region,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 3376–3381 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. D.

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Gain-assisted propagation of electromagnetic energy in subwavelength surface plasmon polariton gap waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 258(2), 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marell, M.

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayy, M.

Mei, T.

Meier, J.

Minch, J.

J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(5), 771–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mojahedi, M.

Neutens, P.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezhad, M. P.

Nielsen, M. G.

Ning, C. Z.

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notzel, R.

Oei, Y. S.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(5), 771–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

Radko, I. P.

Reynolds, K.

Ritzo, B. A.

Sagnes, I.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skryabin, D. V.

Smalbrugge, B.

Smit, M. K.

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, M. H.

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanev, S.

Tetienne, J. P.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetz, K.

Tzolov, V. P.

Van Dorpe, P.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

Vo, T. P.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. B.

Wang, Q. Q.

Weeber, J. C.

G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16327–16334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendler, L.

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, “Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(9), 3289–3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. J.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Bolger, W. Dickson, A. V. Krasavin, L. Liebscher, S. G. Hickey, D. V. Skryabin, and A. V. Zayats, “Amplified spontaneous emission of surface plasmon polaritons and limitations on the increase of their propagation length,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1197–1199 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. J.

Zhu, G.

Zhu, Y. C.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(5), 771–782 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Broberg and S. Lindgren, “Refractive-index of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y layers and InP in the transparent wavelength region,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(9), 3376–3381 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, “Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(9), 3289–3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nano Lett.

A. V. Krasavin, T. P. Vo, W. Dickson, P. M. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “All-plasmonic modulation via stimulated emission of copropagating surface plasmon polaritons on a substrate with gain,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2231–2235 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

S. A. Maier, “Gain-assisted propagation of electromagnetic energy in subwavelength surface plasmon polariton gap waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 258(2), 295–299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Z. J. Yang, N. C. Kim, J. B. Li, M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, Z. H. Hao, and Q. Q. Wang, “Surface plasmons amplifications in single Ag nanoring,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4006–4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. C. Zhu, M. H. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y. S. Oei, R. Notzel, C. Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, M. G. Nielsen, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18633–18641 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Colas des Francs, P. Bramant, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Optical gain, spontaneous and stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons in confined plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16327–16334 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Chen, P. Berini, D. Z. Feng, S. Tanev, and V. P. Tzolov, “Efficient and accurate numerical analysis of multilayer planar optical waveguides in lossy anisotropic media,” Opt. Express 7(8), 260–272 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, “Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmon polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1385–1392 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yu. Fedyanin and A. V. Arsenin, “Surface plasmon polariton amplification in metal-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12524–12531 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4072–4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Gain assisted surface plasmon polariton in quantum wells structures,” Opt. Express 15(1), 176–182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

D. B. Li and C. Z. Ning, “Giant modal gain, amplified surface plasmon-polariton propagation, and slowing down of energy velocity in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Babuty, A. Bousseksou, J. P. Tetienne, I. M. Doyen, C. Sirtori, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, Y. De Wilde, and R. Colombelli, “Semiconductor surface plasmon sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 226806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, “Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The epitaxial structure with InGaAsP multiple QWs grown on n+-InP substrate. (b) Device under test. In- and out- coupling gratings are fabricated on the ends of the metal waveguide. The electrical probe and the fiber probe are indicated. (c) The laser beam is focused on the in-coupling grating to excite SPPs in the metal waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)~(c) Spectra measured under the input-chopping configuration; (d)~(f) Spectra measured under the output-chopping configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The calculated propagation length dependence on the QW gain coefficient for both LRSP and SRSP. (b) The calculated SPP field profiles along the propagation distance. The SPP fields are end-fire coupled into the gain section (red curves) using a Gaussian source and then travel into the transparent passive waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized spectral shape functions for SRPP, LRSP, SE and the product of the SRSP and SE’s spectral shape functions. (b) Three-peak curve fitting for the spectrum measured under 10mW laser input and 100mA current injection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The weight factors against the current injection and laser input intensity obtained from spectrum fitting. The left column (a~c) shows the plots with varying bias current. The right column (d~f) shows the plots with varying laser power.

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