Abstract

We investigated nanostructured indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films fabricated by all-solution processing of ITO nanoparticles and a nanoimprint lithography technique. The nanostructured ITO film with one-dimensional periodicity has low sheet resistance of ~200 Ω/sq, high optical transparency of ~80%, and specific transmission spectra due to light diffractions. By using this ITO film as a transparent electrode and an alignment layer of nematic liquid crystals (LCs), we successfully demonstrate the electro-optic performance of LC devices. This functional transparent electrode can give rise to new photonic devices with nanostructures.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Y. Park, N. R. Hendricks, and K. R. Carter, “Solvent-assisted soft nanoimprint lithography for structured bilayer heterojunction organic solar cells,” Langmuir 27(17), 11251–11258 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y.-T. Kim, S. Hwang, J.-H. Hong, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment layerless flexible liquid crystal display fabricated by an imprinting technique at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. Y. Park, N. R. Hendricks, and K. R. Carter, “Solvent-assisted soft nanoimprint lithography for structured bilayer heterojunction organic solar cells,” Langmuir 27(17), 11251–11258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, M. B. Christiansen, A. Kolew, A. Kristensen, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “All-polymer organic semiconductor laser chips: parallel fabrication and encapsulation,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24881–24887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y.-T. Kim, S. Hwang, J.-H. Hong, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment layerless flexible liquid crystal display fabricated by an imprinting technique at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altun, A. O.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carter, K. R.

J. Y. Park, N. R. Hendricks, and K. R. Carter, “Solvent-assisted soft nanoimprint lithography for structured bilayer heterojunction organic solar cells,” Langmuir 27(17), 11251–11258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chee, M. G.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, D.-G.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-I.

S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

Crawford, G. P.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Oliveira, P. W.

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grüner, G.

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, N. Y.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haase, A.

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hendricks, N. R.

J. Y. Park, N. R. Hendricks, and K. R. Carter, “Solvent-assisted soft nanoimprint lithography for structured bilayer heterojunction organic solar cells,” Langmuir 27(17), 11251–11258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heusing, S.

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, J.-H.

Y.-T. Kim, S. Hwang, J.-H. Hong, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment layerless flexible liquid crystal display fabricated by an imprinting technique at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, S.

Y.-T. Kim, S. Hwang, J.-H. Hong, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment layerless flexible liquid crystal display fabricated by an imprinting technique at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, J.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

Jo, J.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-Y.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-J.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-D.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Kim, S. Hwang, J.-H. Hong, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment layerless flexible liquid crystal display fabricated by an imprinting technique at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

Kolew, A.

Kraker, E.

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-D.

Y.-T. Kim, S. Hwang, J.-H. Hong, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment layerless flexible liquid crystal display fabricated by an imprinting technique at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

Li, J.

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, Y.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mappes, T.

Marks, T. J.

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, S.-I.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, K. M.

S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niu, X.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, M.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paine, D. C.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palfinter, C.

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Parj, H.-D.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. K.

S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. T.

S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

J. Y. Park, N. R. Hendricks, and K. R. Carter, “Solvent-assisted soft nanoimprint lithography for structured bilayer heterojunction organic solar cells,” Langmuir 27(17), 11251–11258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pei, Q.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sachsman, S. M.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saparacin, D. K.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seo, W. S.

S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Talezoe, H.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

Vannahme, C.

Veith, M.

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, R. P.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Youn, J. R.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, and D.-Y. Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(21), 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Q. Zhang, L. Li, Q. Chen, X. Niu, J. Liu, and Q. Pei, “Highly flexible silver nanowire electrodes for shape-memory polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 664–668 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. R. Cairns, R. P. Witte, D. K. Saparacin, S. M. Sachsman, D. C. Paine, and G. P. Crawford, “Stain-dependent electrical resistance of tin-doped indium oxide on polymer substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(11), 1425–1427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Parj, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, N. Y. Ha, M. G. Chee, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhanced linearly polarized lasing emission from nanoimprinted surface-emitting distributed feedback laser based on polymeric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Kim, S. Hwang, J.-H. Hong, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment layerless flexible liquid crystal display fabricated by an imprinting technique at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

S.-I. Choi, K. M. Nam, B. K. Park, W. S. Seo, and J. T. Park, “Preparation and optical properties of colloidal, monodisperse, and highly crystalline ITO nanoparticles,” Chem. Mater. 20(8), 2609–2611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, Y. Takahashi, K. Ishikawa, H. Talezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional hexagonally nanoimprinted periodic structures using sequential surface relief grating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(6), 4566–4571 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

J. Y. Park, N. R. Hendricks, and K. R. Carter, “Solvent-assisted soft nanoimprint lithography for structured bilayer heterojunction organic solar cells,” Langmuir 27(17), 11251–11258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

J. Li, L. Hu, L. Wang, Y. Zhou, G. Grüner, and T. J. Marks, “Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes,” Nano Lett. 6(11), 2472–2477 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Science

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S. Heusing, P. W. de Oliveira, E. Kraker, A. Haase, C. Palfinter, and M. Veith, “Wet chemical deposited ITO coatings on flexible substrates for organic photodiodes,” Thin Solid Films 518(4), 1164–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of fabrication process of the nanostructured ITO film. (b) TEM image of the ITO nanoparticles. (c) Photographs of the ITO film before (upper) and after (lower) annealing in air at 330 °C for 30 min. (d) Cross-sectional TEM image of the nanostructured ITO films with p = 379 nm, dgrating = 100 nm, and dITO = 508 ± 56 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) AFM images (10 μm × 10 μm) and (b) XRD patterns of ITO films annealed at Ta = 230 °C and 330 °C. Dependences of (c) transmission spectra and (d) sheet resistances on a number of ITO layers. The dashed line refers to a transmission spectrum of the nanoimprinted ITO film of Fig. 1(d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra (solid lines) and AFM images (insets) of nanostructured ITO films with (a) p = 544 nm (dgrating = 86 nm), (b) 397 nm (dgrating = 113 nm), (c) 379 nm (dgrating = 100 nm), and (d) 273 nm (dgrating = 71 nm). Photographs and schematic illustration represent diffracted reflection light from the sample with p = 544 nm in (a). Dashed lines indicate simulated transmission spectra of nanostructured ITO films with various p values for normal incidence of TE and TM polarized light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustrations of (a) the NLC cell and (c) the TN-LC cell fabricated with the nanostructured ITO films with p = 273 nm. (b) Crossed-polarizer micrographs of the NLC cells for various rotation angles ϕ = 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°. (d) The transmitted intensity-applied voltage (T-V) characteristic of the TN-LC cell.

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