Abstract

We propose a scheme for producing attosecond pulses with sophisticated spatio-spectral waveforms. The profile of a seed attosecond pulse is modified and its central frequency is up-converted through interaction with an infrared pump pulse. The transverse profile of the infrared beam and a spatiotemporal shift between the seed and infrared pulses are used for manipulating the spatio-spectral waveform of the generated pulse beam. We present several examples of sophisticated isolated attosecond pulse beam generation, including spatio-spectral Airy beam that exhibits prismatic self-bending effect and a beam undergoing auto-focusing to a sub-micron spot without the need of a focusing lens or nonlinearity.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317, 766–769 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Forre, E. Mevel, and E. Constant, “Seeded attosecond-pulse generation in structured media: a road for attosecond optics,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 021402 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. A. Siviloglou and D. N. Christodoulides, “Accelerating finite energy Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 32, 979–981 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-healing properties of optical Airy beams,” Opt. Express 16, 12880–12891 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, “Filamentation of femtosecond laser Airy beams in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3, 395–398 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Single-attosecond pulse generation using a seed harmonic pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021801 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic enhancement of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053904 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Space-time considerations in the phase locking of high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Javanainen, J. H. Eberly, and Q. Su, “Numerical simulations of multiphoton ionization and above-threshold electron spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3430–344 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, and A. F. Staraceet, “Analytic formulae for high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 42, 035601 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Forre, E. Mevel, and E. Constant, “Seeded attosecond-pulse generation in structured media: a road for attosecond optics,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 021402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (10)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, “Filamentation of femtosecond laser Airy beams in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3, 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, and A. F. Staraceet, “Analytic formulae for high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 42, 035601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-healing properties of optical Airy beams,” Opt. Express 16, 12880–12891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317, 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou and D. N. Christodoulides, “Accelerating finite energy Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 32, 979–981 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic enhancement of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Single-attosecond pulse generation using a seed harmonic pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Space-time considerations in the phase locking of high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. Javanainen, J. H. Eberly, and Q. Su, “Numerical simulations of multiphoton ionization and above-threshold electron spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3430–344 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abel, M. J.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anscombe, M. P.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3, 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahabad, A.

P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, M. J.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutu, W.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broky, J.

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-healing properties of optical Airy beams,” Opt. Express 16, 12880–12891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

P. H. Bucksbaum, “The future of attosecond spectroscopy,” Science 317, 766–769 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

Calegari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-healing properties of optical Airy beams,” Opt. Express 16, 12880–12891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou and D. N. Christodoulides, “Accelerating finite energy Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 32, 979–981 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

M. Forre, E. Mevel, and E. Constant, “Seeded attosecond-pulse generation in structured media: a road for attosecond optics,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 021402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogariu, A.

J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-healing properties of optical Airy beams,” Opt. Express 16, 12880–12891 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, H.

H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Javanainen, J. H. Eberly, and Q. Su, “Numerical simulations of multiphoton ionization and above-threshold electron spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3430–344 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3, 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forre, M.

M. Forre, E. Mevel, and E. Constant, “Seeded attosecond-pulse generation in structured media: a road for attosecond optics,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 021402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frassetto, F.

Frolov, M. V.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, and A. F. Staraceet, “Analytic formulae for high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 42, 035601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M. B.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Space-time considerations in the phase locking of high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gademann, G.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, E.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganany-Padowicz, A.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3, 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerrity, M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauri, C. P.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, B.

H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K. L.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic enhancement of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Single-attosecond pulse generation using a seed harmonic pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javanainen, J.

J. Javanainen, J. H. Eberly, and Q. Su, “Numerical simulations of multiphoton ionization and above-threshold electron spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3430–344 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic enhancement of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H.

P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keep, T.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kelkensberg, F.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolesik, M.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, “Filamentation of femtosecond laser Airy beams in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornelis, W.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
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M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
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M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
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T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
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F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
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A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
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Lytle, A. L.

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
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N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
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M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, and A. F. Staraceet, “Analytic formulae for high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 42, 035601 (2009).
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X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic enhancement of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053904 (2007).
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K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Single-attosecond pulse generation using a seed harmonic pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021801 (2007).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, “Filamentation of femtosecond laser Airy beams in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
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Moloney, J. V.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
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P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
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H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, “Harnessing attosecond science in the quest for coherent X-rays,” Science 317, 775–778 (2007).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
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E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic enhancement of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053904 (2007).
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M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negro, M.

Neumark, D. M.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, A.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, P. M. Nagel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Heterodyne mixing of laser fields for temporal gating of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polynkin, P.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, “Filamentation of femtosecond laser Airy beams in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Grating-assisted phase matching in extreme nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A. S.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarantseva, T. S.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, and A. F. Staraceet, “Analytic formulae for high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 42, 035601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
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K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 023003 (2004).
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M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, “Space-time considerations in the phase locking of high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1367–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlup, P.

J. Biegert, A. Heinrich, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, P. Schlup, M. P. Anscombe, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and U. Keller, “Control of high-order harmonic emission using attosecond pulse trains,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 87–96 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Heinrich, W. Kornelis, M. P. Anscombe, C. P. Hauri, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Enhanced VUV-assisted high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 39, S275–S281 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidorenko, P.

P. Sidorenko, M. Kozlov, A. Bahabad, T. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and O. Cohen, “Sawtooth grating-assisted phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18, 22686–22692 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siu, W. K.

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siviloglou, G. A.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
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J. Broky, G. A. Siviloglou, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-healing properties of optical Airy beams,” Opt. Express 16, 12880–12891 (2008).
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G. A. Siviloglou and D. N. Christodoulides, “Accelerating finite energy Airy beams,” Opt. Lett. 32, 979–981 (2007).
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G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of accelerating Airy beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staraceet, A. F.

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, T. S. Sarantseva, and A. F. Staraceet, “Analytic formulae for high harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 42, 035601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, C. P.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, P. M. Nagel, W. Boutu, M. J. Bell, C. P. Steiner, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission,” Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. Javanainen, J. H. Eberly, and Q. Su, “Numerical simulations of multiphoton ionization and above-threshold electron spectra,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3430–344 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Dramatic enhancement of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053904 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Single-attosecond pulse generation using a seed harmonic pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 021801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tate, J. L.

N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomann, I.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

N. Dudovich, J. L. Tate, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. B. Gaarde, “Subcycle spatial mapping of recollision dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011806 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3, 395–398 (2009).
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Vozzi, C.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Efficient continuum generation exceeding 200 eV by intense ultrashort two-color driver,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3125–3127 (2009).
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H. Du, H. Wang, and B. Hu, “Isolated short attosecond pulse generated using a two-color laser and a high-order pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 063813 (2010).
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X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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X. Feng, S. Gilbertson, H. Mashiko, H. Wang, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, Y. Wu, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses with 20 to 28 femtosecond lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183901 (2009).
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Nature (2)

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New J. Phys. (1)

G. Gademann, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, P. Johnsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond control of electronion recollision in high harmonic generation,” New J. Phys. 13, 033002 (2011).
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P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Curved plasma channel generation using ultraintense Airy beams,” Science 324, 229–232 (2009).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(color online) Frequency up-conversion of attosecond pulses. (a) Driving field (solid line) which consists of a mid-IR (λIR = 2μm) laser field and an EUV pulse of 250 attosecond duration (λEUV = 30 nm). When the joint field interacts with He+ medium, ionization (dashed blue) is gated by the attosecond pulse since the mid-IR field is too weak to independently ionize the medium. (b) Emitted spectral field amplitude (blue) and phase (green) as a function of photon energy. The spectral field almost perfectly matches an Airy function (dashed black). x-ray attosecond pulses are produced when the lower part of the spectrum is filtered out. (c) Pulse width of the produced x-ray attosecond pulse versus the bottom limit of the high pass filter. Blue, green and red circles mark 920 eV, 900 eV and 800 eV spectral filters respectively. (d) x-ray attosecond pulses produced by high-pass filtration at 920 eV (blue), 900 eV (green) and 800 eV (red), where multiple spectral lobes result in a flat-top pulse (phase is marked by dashed red). (e–f) Delaying the EUV pulse by +5° and −5° with respect to the mid-IR driver, result in a trailing edge and leading edge pulses, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(color online) Spatio-spectral Airy beam. (Inset of plot a) The source EUV attosecond pulse is transversely shifted relative to the peak intensity of the mid-IR beam. (a) Emission exhibits Airy spectrum and Airy intensity profile in the transverse axis. (b) Single spectral component of the emitted field, E ( x ) 578 e V, versus the transverse coordinate (solid blue) compared to a Gaussian enveloped Airy function (dash red). (c) Propagation of E ( x ) 578 eV. The peak of the beam exhibits parabolic propagation path. (d) Initial propagation angle (θ), parabolic curvature coefficient, and initial position of the main lobe as a function of photon-energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(color online) Prism effect of spatio-spectral Airy beam. Propagation of attosecond pulses of 10 eV bandwidth centered at (a) 608 eV (b) 578 eV and (c) 548 eV. Plots show the spatio-temporal intensity after 5 mm propagation is of attosecond scale duration and μm width. (d) Schematic illustration for enhanced prism effect utilization by a slit. (e) A 1μm slit located 5 mm after the emission plane act as a source of 7.6 eV bandwidth attosecond pulse, with linear x(ω) dependence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(color online) Generation of auto-focusing x-ray attosecond pulses. (Inset of plot a) The source attosecond pulse beam (blue) is located at a trough of the mid-IR beam (red). Emitted spatial-spectral (a) intensity, and (b) phase exhibiting Airy spectrum with parabolic variation in the transverse coordinate. (b-inset show the phase profile along the dashed line). (c) Propagation of the 929 eV spectral component of the generated radiation demonstrates focusing effect due to spatial quadratic phase. (d) Spatio-temporal spot of generated attosecond pulse at the focal point. The calculation consists of 250 eV bandwidth centered at ĥω = 929 eV.

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