Abstract

We present second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements and simulations from a silica matrix containing randomly distributed but aligned elongated silver nanoparticles (NPs). The composites were produced by a double ion-implantation process of silver nanoparticles followed by an irradiation with Si ions. It is demonstrated that one can model the experimental results by considering the sub-micrometric composite layer as a nonlinear media containing rod NPs for which the hyperpolarizability tensor is cylindrically symmetric along the NP long axis. The second-order macroscopic susceptibility of the composite originates from the coherent summation of the hyperpolarizabilities associated to each NP. We obtain analytical expressions for the p- and s-polarized effective susceptibility tensor as a function of experimental variables, such as the fundamental beam input polarization and sample orientation, and fitting parameters relating the cylindrically shaped hyperpolarizability. In addition, coherent SHG measurements on spherical nanoparticles resulting from the first ion-implantation process are also presented showing an isotropic polar behavior for the total SHG intensity where the p-polarized SHG intensity resulted to be the main contribution.

© 2011 OSA

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  22. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nature Biotech. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Podlipensky, J. Lange, G. Seifert, H. Graener, and I. Cravetchi, “Second-harmonic generation from ellipsoidal silver nanoparticles embedded in silica glass, ” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 716–718(2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative Second-Harmonic Generation Microscopy in Collagen,” Appl. Opt. 42(25), 5209–5219 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C.I. Valencia, E.R. Méndez, and B.S. Mendoza, “Second-harmonic generation in the scattering of light by an infinite cylinder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 (1) 36–44 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C.I. Valencia and E.R. Méndez, “Weak localization effects in the second-harmonic light scattered by random systems of particles,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1706–1709 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
    [CrossRef]

2015 (1)

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.I. Valencia and E.R. Méndez, “Weak localization effects in the second-harmonic light scattered by random systems of particles,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1706–1709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. D. McMahon, D. Ferrara, C. T. Bowie, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Second harmonic generation from resonantly excited arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 259–265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, and A. Knoesen, “Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy: The Molecular Origins of the Optical Second-Order Nonlinearity of Collagen,” Biophys. J. 93(12),4433–4444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Mendoza and W. L. Mochán, “Second harmonic surface response of a composite,” Opt. Mat. 29(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Matsui, “Nanoparticles for Electronic Device Applications: A Brief Review,” JCEJ 38(8), 535–546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

C.I. Valencia, E.R. Méndez, and B.S. Mendoza, “Second-harmonic generation in the scattering of light by an infinite cylinder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 (1) 36–44 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation from a sphere of centrosymmetric material: small-particle limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  21 (7, 1328–1347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Zheludev and V. I. Emelyanov, “Phase matched second harmonic generation from nanostructured metallic surfaces,” J. Opt. A: Pure App. Opt. 6(1), 26–28 (2004).

A. Knoesen, S. Pakalnis, M. Wang, W. D. Wise, N. Lee, and C. W. Frank, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1154–1163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

S. Gallet, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of nanocrystalline maghemite particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 378 (1–2), 101–104 (2003)
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Podlipensky, J. Lange, G. Seifert, H. Graener, and I. Cravetchi, “Second-harmonic generation from ellipsoidal silver nanoparticles embedded in silica glass, ” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 716–718(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative Second-Harmonic Generation Microscopy in Collagen,” Appl. Opt. 42(25), 5209–5219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nature Biotech. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Ultrafast Optical Switching in a Silver Nanoparticle System,” JJAP 39 (1-9A), 5132–5133 (2000).

1999 (2)

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59(19), 12632–12640 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, P. V. Elyutin, A. A. Nikulin, and E. A. Ostrovskaya, “Size effects in optical second-harmonic generation by metallic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots: The role of quantum chaotic dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 51(24), 17591–17599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

Y. R. Shen, “Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation,” Nature (London) 337, 519–525 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akamatsu, N.

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, P. V. Elyutin, A. A. Nikulin, and E. A. Ostrovskaya, “Size effects in optical second-harmonic generation by metallic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots: The role of quantum chaotic dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 51(24), 17591–17599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amat-Roldan, I.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atoda, N.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bachelier, G.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benichou, E.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
[CrossRef]

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard-Desce, M.

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bookey, H. T.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bowie, C. T.

M. D. McMahon, D. Ferrara, C. T. Bowie, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Second harmonic generation from resonantly excited arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 259–265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brevet, P.-F.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
[CrossRef]

Brevet, P-F.

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P-F. Brevet, “Second Harmonic Generation in Nanostructures,” in Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology, G. A. Wurtz, R.J. Pollard, and A.V. Zayats, eds. (Elsevier, 2011), pp. 351–381
[CrossRef]

Buchel, D.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Butet, J.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nature Biotech. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P. M.

Cheang-Wong, J. C.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cravetchi, I.

Crespo-Sosa, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation from a sphere of centrosymmetric material: small-particle limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  21 (7, 1328–1347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, M.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domen, K.

Downer, M. C.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature (London) 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eisenthal, K. B.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elyutin, P. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, P. V. Elyutin, A. A. Nikulin, and E. A. Ostrovskaya, “Size effects in optical second-harmonic generation by metallic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots: The role of quantum chaotic dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 51(24), 17591–17599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Emelyanov, V. I.

N. I. Zheludev and V. I. Emelyanov, “Phase matched second harmonic generation from nanostructured metallic surfaces,” J. Opt. A: Pure App. Opt. 6(1), 26–28 (2004).

Ferrara, D.

M. D. McMahon, D. Ferrara, C. T. Bowie, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Second harmonic generation from resonantly excited arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 259–265 (2007).
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P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
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I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, and A. Knoesen, “Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy: The Molecular Origins of the Optical Second-Order Nonlinearity of Collagen,” Biophys. J. 93(12),4433–4444 (2007).
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A. Knoesen, S. Pakalnis, M. Wang, W. D. Wise, N. Lee, and C. W. Frank, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1154–1163 (2004).
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Fukuda, H.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
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S. Gallet, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of nanocrystalline maghemite particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 378 (1–2), 101–104 (2003)
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Graener, H.

Haglund, R. F.

M. D. McMahon, D. Ferrara, C. T. Bowie, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Second harmonic generation from resonantly excited arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 259–265 (2007).
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H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Ultrafast Optical Switching in a Silver Nanoparticle System,” JJAP 39 (1-9A), 5132–5133 (2000).

Heinz, T. F.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation from a sphere of centrosymmetric material: small-particle limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  21 (7, 1328–1347 (2004).
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J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4045–4048 (1999).
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Inouye, H.

H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Ultrafast Optical Switching in a Silver Nanoparticle System,” JJAP 39 (1-9A), 5132–5133 (2000).

Jiang, Y.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
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G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
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J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
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R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
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J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
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Kim, D.

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59(19), 12632–12640 (1999).
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I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, and A. Knoesen, “Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy: The Molecular Origins of the Optical Second-Order Nonlinearity of Collagen,” Biophys. J. 93(12),4433–4444 (2007).
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A. Knoesen, S. Pakalnis, M. Wang, W. D. Wise, N. Lee, and C. W. Frank, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1154–1163 (2004).
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Le Grand, Y.

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
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Lee, N.

A. Knoesen, S. Pakalnis, M. Wang, W. D. Wise, N. Lee, and C. W. Frank, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1154–1163 (2004).
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A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
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A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
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P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nature Biotech. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
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M. D. McMahon, D. Ferrara, C. T. Bowie, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Second harmonic generation from resonantly excited arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 259–265 (2007).
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Lopez-Suarez, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
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Loza-Alvarez, P.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
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Mallegol, T.

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
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Matlis, N.

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
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P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCarthy, J.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, M. D.

M. D. McMahon, D. Ferrara, C. T. Bowie, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Second harmonic generation from resonantly excited arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 259–265 (2007).
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C.I. Valencia and E.R. Méndez, “Weak localization effects in the second-harmonic light scattered by random systems of particles,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1706–1709 (2009).
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C.I. Valencia, E.R. Méndez, and B.S. Mendoza, “Second-harmonic generation in the scattering of light by an infinite cylinder,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21 (1) 36–44 (2004).
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Mendoza, B. S.

B. S. Mendoza and W. L. Mochán, “Second harmonic surface response of a composite,” Opt. Mat. 29(1), 1–5 (2006).
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P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendoza, B.S.

Mihalcea, C.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, P. B.

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59(19), 12632–12640 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mochán, W. L.

B. S. Mendoza and W. L. Mochán, “Second harmonic surface response of a composite,” Opt. Mat. 29(1), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mongin, O.

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morales, U.

J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
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Nakano, T.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
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Nakatsuka, H.

H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Ultrafast Optical Switching in a Silver Nanoparticle System,” JJAP 39 (1-9A), 5132–5133 (2000).

Nappa, J.

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
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O. A. Aktsipetrov, P. V. Elyutin, A. A. Nikulin, and E. A. Ostrovskaya, “Size effects in optical second-harmonic generation by metallic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots: The role of quantum chaotic dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 51(24), 17591–17599 (1995).
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A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
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Odin, C.

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
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Oliver, A.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
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Ostrovskaya, E. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, P. V. Elyutin, A. A. Nikulin, and E. A. Ostrovskaya, “Size effects in optical second-harmonic generation by metallic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots: The role of quantum chaotic dynamics,” Phys. Rev. B 51(24), 17591–17599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pakalnis, S.

A. Knoesen, S. Pakalnis, M. Wang, W. D. Wise, N. Lee, and C. W. Frank, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1154–1163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

S. Gallet, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of nanocrystalline maghemite particles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 378 (1–2), 101–104 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A.

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reiser, K. M.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, and A. Knoesen, “Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy: The Molecular Origins of the Optical Second-Order Nonlinearity of Collagen,” Biophys. J. 93(12),4433–4444 (2007).
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P. Stoller, P. M. Celliers, K. M. Reiser, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Quantitative Second-Harmonic Generation Microscopy in Collagen,” Appl. Opt. 42(25), 5209–5219 (2003).
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A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revillod, G.

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Esqueda, J. A.

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rickards, J.

J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rocha-Mendoza, I.

I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, and A. Knoesen, “Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy: The Molecular Origins of the Optical Second-Order Nonlinearity of Collagen,” Biophys. J. 93(12),4433–4444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrguez-Fernndez, L.

J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Fernandez, L.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
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Rodríguez-Fernández, L.

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Iglesias, V.

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
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A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roude, D.

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Russier-Antoine, I.

G. Bachelier, J. Butet, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Origin of optical second-harmonic generation in spherical gold nanoparticles: Local surface and nonlocal bulk contributions,” Phys. Rev. B 82 (23), 235403 (2015).
[CrossRef]

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B 71 (1), 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, S. I. C. O.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
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Seifert, G.

Seman, J. A.

A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
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Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Theory of optical second-harmonic generation from a sphere of centrosymmetric material: small-particle limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  21 (7, 1328–1347 (2004).
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J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

X. Zhuang, P. B. Miranda, D. Kim, and Y. R. Shen, “Mapping molecular orientation and conformation at interfaces by surface nonlinear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 59(19), 12632–12640 (1999).
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R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
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Tanaka, K.

H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Ultrafast Optical Switching in a Silver Nanoparticle System,” JJAP 39 (1-9A), 5132–5133 (2000).

Thayil, A. K. N.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Buchel, H. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, “Local plasmon photonic transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2417–2419 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, W. D.

A. Knoesen, S. Pakalnis, M. Wang, W. D. Wise, N. Lee, and C. W. Frank, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1154–1163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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P. Figliozzi, L. Sun, Y. Jiang, N. Matlis, B. Mattern, M. C. Downer, S. P. Withrow, C. W. White, W. L. Mochán, and B. S. Mendoza, “Single-Beam and Enhanced Two-Beam Second-Harmonic Generation from Silicon Nanocrystals by Use of Spatially Inhomogeneous Femtosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 047401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, and A. Knoesen, “Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy: The Molecular Origins of the Optical Second-Order Nonlinearity of Collagen,” Biophys. J. 93(12),4433–4444 (2007).
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I. Rocha-Mendoza, D. R. Yankelevich, M. Wang, K. M. Reiser, C. W. Frank, and A. Knoesen, “Sum Frequency Vibrational Spectroscopy: The Molecular Origins of the Optical Second-Order Nonlinearity of Collagen,” Biophys. J. 93(12),4433–4444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, “Connective tissue polarity. Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon,” Biophys. J. 50(4), 693–712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Knoesen, S. Pakalnis, M. Wang, W. D. Wise, N. Lee, and C. W. Frank, “Sum-frequency spectroscopy and imaging of aligned helical polypeptides, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(5), 1154–1163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, S. I. C. O. Santos, I. Amat-Roldan, A. K. N. Thayil, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “In vivo, pixel-resolution mapping of thick filaments’ orientation in nonfibrilar muscle using polarization-sensitive second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1)(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A: Pure App. Opt. (1)

N. I. Zheludev and V. I. Emelyanov, “Phase matched second harmonic generation from nanostructured metallic surfaces,” J. Opt. A: Pure App. Opt. 6(1), 26–28 (2004).

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H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Ultrafast Optical Switching in a Silver Nanoparticle System,” JJAP 39 (1-9A), 5132–5133 (2000).

Langmuir (1)

A. Leray, L. Leroy, Y. Le Grand, C. Odin, A. Renault, V. Vi, D. Roude, T. Mallegol, O. Mongin, M. H. V. Werts, and M. Blanchard-Desce, “Organization and Orientation of Amphiphilic Push-Pull Chromophores Deposited in Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers Studied by Second Harmonic Generation and Atomic Force Microscopy,” Langmuir 20(19), 8165–8171 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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J. C. Cheang-Wong, U. Morales, A. Oliver, L. Rodrguez-Fernndez, and J. Rickards, “MeV ion beam deformation of colloidal silica particles,” Nuc. Instrum. Meth. B 242 (1–2), 452–454 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C.I. Valencia and E.R. Méndez, “Weak localization effects in the second-harmonic light scattered by random systems of particles,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1706–1709 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. C. Cheang-Wong, A. Crespo-Sosa, A. Lopez-Suarez, A. Oliver, V. Rodriguez-Iglesias, and H. G. Silva-Pereyra, “Anisotropy in the nonlinear absorption of elongated silver nanoparticles in silica, probed by femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 282, 1909–1912 (2009).
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A. Oliver, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, J. C. Cheang-Wong, C. E. Román-Velázquez, A. Crespo-Sosa, L. Rodríguez-Fernández, J. A. Seman, and C. Noguez, “Controlled anisotropic deformation of Ag nanoparticles by Si ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 74(24),245425 (2006).
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J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(20), 4045–4048 (1999).
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Other (2)

R. Rangel-Rojo, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, C. Torres-Torres, A. Oliver, L. Rodriguez-Fernandez, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. C. Cheang-Wong, J. McCarthy, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of aligned elongated silver nanoparticles embedded in silica,” in Silver Nanoparticles, David Pozo Perez eds. (In-Tech, 2010), pp. 35–62, http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/linear-and-nonlinear-optical-properties-of-aligned-elongated-silver-nanoparticles-embedded-in-silica .

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Euler angles, (ψ, θ, ϕ), relating the laboratory coordinates system, xyz, and the coordinate system, ξηζ, of a single El Ag-NP. ϕ is the isotropic azimuthal angle over the ζ-axis. x1-axis is obtained from the first rotation, ϕ. θ is the pitch angle formed from the z-axis of the laboratory system and the ζ–axis of the NP coordinate system, after the first rotation ϕ. ψ is the azimuthal angle over z-axis

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics for absorption experiments on spherical (a) and elongated (b) Ag-NPs. In the figures, xyz is the laboratory coordinate system; p and s are respectively the parallel and perpendicular linear polarization of the incident beam with respect the plane of incidence; θinc is the angle of incidence (positive for counterclockwise direction) made by the propagation direction, k, and the surface normal, . (c) TEM micrograph of the composite film, as published by Rangel-Rojo et. al. [9], showing the elongated Ag-NPs aligned in a preferential direction. White arrows indicate the remaining spherical NPs after the second ion-implantation process. The inset shows the morphology of a single NP. (d) and (e) are the absorption spectra of spherical and elongated Ag-NPs respectively, taken at different input polarization and angle of incidence (as labeled in (d)).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SHG experiment in the reflection mode. In the figure, ω,2ω: fundamental and the second harmonic frequencies; p/s:parallel/perpendicular linear polarization of the incident beam with respect the plane of incidence; θinc: angle of incidence made by the propagation direction, kω, and the surface normal, ; α: angle of polarization of the fundamental beam; Φ: sample rotation angle made by the projection of the NP long axis, ζ, over the xy plane and the fixed plane of incidence contained in xz. (b) Different sample orientations, i. e., elongated Ag-NPs orientations with respect the laboratory system, used on SHG experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental and simulated SHG polar dependence of elongated Ag-NPs, for the four different sample orientations (see Fig. 3) Φ = 0° (a), Φ = 90° (b), Φ = 180° (c) and Φ = 270°(d), respectively. In all plots the experimental total, p-polarized and s-polarized, SH are denoted by black squares, red circles and blue triangles, respectively. While the simulated SHG intensities are denoted using the same color convention in solid lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SHG signal of spherical Ag-NPs as a function of the polarization angle, α, obtained for two different sample orientations (see Figure 2): Φ = 0°(a) and Φ = 90° (b). In the plots, the total (opened squares, black), p-polarized (opened circles, red) and s-polarized (opened triangles, blue) SHG intensities are shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Fundamental laser spectra used in the SHG experiments and SHG spectra obtained for spherical and elongated NPs. In all plots, curves in black stands for elongated NPs while curves in red for spherical NPs. SHG signal as a function of the fundamental input power for elongated (b) and spherical (c) Ag-NPs, respectively. Here, solid squares denote the experimental data while continuous lines indicate the fitted curves. m: is the slope obtained from the linear fitting.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of parameters r and a, and resulting SH maxima positions, to simulate the SHG experiments on El Ag-NPs.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ ijk ( 2 ) = N R ijk , i j k β i j k
I SH | χ eff ( 2 ) | 2 = | χ eff , p α ( 2 ) | 2 + | χ eff , s α ( 2 ) | 2 ,
χ eff , e ^ 2 e ^ 1 ( 2 ) = [ e ^ 2 ( 2 ω ) L ( 2 ω ) ] χ ( 2 ) : [ e ^ 1 ( ω ) L ( ω ) ] 2 .
χ eff , p α ( 2 ) = 1 4 a sin 2 α sin Φ ( cos Φ + sin 2 Φ ) r + 2 2 a cos 2 α sin 2 Φ 2 ( r sin 2 Φ + cos 2 Φ ) 2 4 a b cos Φ sin 2 Φ ( 1 1 2 cos 2 α ) + 1 4 a sin 2 α sin 2 Φ sin 2 Φ 2 ,
χ eff , s α ( 2 ) = 2 4 a sin 2 α sin 3 Φ 2 4 sin Φ ( 1 + cos 2 Φ ) r 2 4 sin Φ cos 2 α ( cos Φ sin 2 Φ ) r + 1 2 a sin 2 α ( cos 2 Φ sin 2 Φ 2 r + sin 2 Φ cos 2 Φ 2 ) + 2 2 a cos 2 α sin Φ cos Φ sin 2 Φ 2,

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