Abstract

We performed in vivo THz transmission imaging study on a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model for early human breast cancer detection. With a THz-fiber-scanning transmission imaging system, we continuously monitored the growth of human breast cancer in mice. Our in vivo study not only indicates that THz transmission imaging can distinguish cancer from the surrounding fatty tissue, but also with a high sensitivity. Our in vivo study on the subcutaneous xenograft mouse model will encourage broad and further investigations for future early cancer screening by using THz imaging system.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (5)

E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7897, 78970C, 78970C-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, C.-M. Chiu, Y.-F. Tsai, T.-F. Tseng, J.-T. Lu, W.-L. Lai, and C.-K. Sun, “Performance of THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy to diagnose breast tumors,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19523–19531 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-20-19523 .
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y. J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-9-1344 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (5)

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

N. T. Brewer, T. Salz, and S. E. Lillie, “Systematic review: the long-term effects of false-positive mammograms,” Ann. Intern. Med. 146(7), 502–510 (2007).
[PubMed]

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-9-1017 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-3-308 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. T. Ramsay, J. C. Kent, R. A. Hartmann, and P. E. Hartmann, “Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging,” J. Anat. 206(6), 525–534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Sandby-Møller, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness at different body sites: relationship to age, gender, pigmentation, blood content, skin type and smoking habits,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 83(6), 410–413 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Vandeweyer and D. Hertens, “Quantification of glands and fat in breast tissue: an experimental determination,” Ann. Anat. 184(2), 181–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. C. M. Onuigbo, M. E. Cuffy-Hallam, N. A. Dunsmore, and E. S. Zinreich, “Mammography reveals a 2-mm intraductal breast carcinoma,” Hosp. Physician 37, 61–64 (2001).

1997 (1)

S. A. Feig and R. E. Hendrick, “Radiation risk from screening mammography of women aged 40-49 years,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 22(22), 119–124 (1997).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

T. T. Alagaratnam and J. Wong, “Limitations of mammography in Chinese females,” Clin. Radiol. 36(2), 175–177 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aanandan, C. K.

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abraham, S. J.

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, A. T.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alagaratnam, T. T.

T. T. Alagaratnam and J. Wong, “Limitations of mammography in Chinese females,” Clin. Radiol. 36(2), 175–177 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alencar, H.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

Bennett, D.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, H.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, E.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bindu, G.

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, N. T.

N. T. Brewer, T. Salz, and S. E. Lillie, “Systematic review: the long-term effects of false-positive mammograms,” Ann. Intern. Med. 146(7), 502–510 (2007).
[PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmi, N.

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, M.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, L. J.

Chen, L.-J.

Chen, Y.

Chiu, C.-M.

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cochran, A.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuffy-Hallam, M. E.

A. C. M. Onuigbo, M. E. Cuffy-Hallam, N. A. Dunsmore, and E. S. Zinreich, “Mammography reveals a 2-mm intraductal breast carcinoma,” Hosp. Physician 37, 61–64 (2001).

Culjat, M. O.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

Duling, I.

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dunsmore, N. A.

A. C. M. Onuigbo, M. E. Cuffy-Hallam, N. A. Dunsmore, and E. S. Zinreich, “Mammography reveals a 2-mm intraductal breast carcinoma,” Hosp. Physician 37, 61–64 (2001).

Egawa, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eldor, L.

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feig, S. A.

S. A. Feig and R. E. Hendrick, “Radiation risk from screening mammography of women aged 40-49 years,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 22(22), 119–124 (1997).
[PubMed]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fodor, A.

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gee, M. S.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilhar, A.

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundfest, W. S.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hartmann, P. E.

D. T. Ramsay, J. C. Kent, R. A. Hartmann, and P. E. Hartmann, “Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging,” J. Anat. 206(6), 525–534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, R. A.

D. T. Ramsay, J. C. Kent, R. A. Hartmann, and P. E. Hartmann, “Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging,” J. Anat. 206(6), 525–534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrick, R. E.

S. A. Feig and R. E. Hendrick, “Radiation risk from screening mammography of women aged 40-49 years,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 22(22), 119–124 (1997).
[PubMed]

Hertens, D.

E. Vandeweyer and D. Hertens, “Quantification of glands and fat in breast tissue: an experimental determination,” Ann. Anat. 184(2), 181–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, T.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H. Y.

Huang, H.-Y.

Huang, S. Y.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3848 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-R.

Huang, Y.-W.

Hubschman, J. P.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hubschman, J.-P.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y. J.

Hwang, Y.-J.

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, R. D.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Josephson, L.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kan, K. W.

Kao, T.-F.

Kealey, C. P.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kent, J. C.

D. T. Ramsay, J. C. Kent, R. A. Hartmann, and P. E. Hartmann, “Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging,” J. Anat. 206(6), 525–534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-C.

Kuo, J. L.

Lai, C.-H.

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W.-L.

Lee, W.-J.

Li, Y.-T.

Lillie, S. E.

N. T. Brewer, T. Salz, and S. E. Lillie, “Systematic review: the long-term effects of false-positive mammograms,” Ann. Intern. Med. 146(7), 502–510 (2007).
[PubMed]

Lonappan, A.

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. Y.

Lu, J.-T.

Lu, J.-Y.

Mahmood, U.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maricevich, M.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathew, K. T.

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, R. E.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W.-H.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onuigbo, A. C. M.

A. C. M. Onuigbo, M. E. Cuffy-Hallam, N. A. Dunsmore, and E. S. Zinreich, “Mammography reveals a 2-mm intraductal breast carcinoma,” Hosp. Physician 37, 61–64 (2001).

Pan, C. L.

Pan, C.-L.

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7897, 78970C, 78970C-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Huang, P. C. Ashworth, K. W. Kan, Y. Chen, V. P. Wallace, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Improved sample characterization in terahertz reflection imaging and spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3848–3854 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3848 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm? URI=oe-17-15-12444 .
[PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

Pittet, M. J.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulsen, T.

J. Sandby-Møller, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness at different body sites: relationship to age, gender, pigmentation, blood content, skin type and smoking habits,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 83(6), 410–413 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A. D.

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramon, Y.

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsay, D. T.

D. T. Ramsay, J. C. Kent, R. A. Hartmann, and P. E. Hartmann, “Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging,” J. Anat. 206(6), 525–534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, F.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salz, T.

N. T. Brewer, T. Salz, and S. E. Lillie, “Systematic review: the long-term effects of false-positive mammograms,” Ann. Intern. Med. 146(7), 502–510 (2007).
[PubMed]

Sandby-Møller, J.

J. Sandby-Møller, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness at different body sites: relationship to age, gender, pigmentation, blood content, skin type and smoking habits,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 83(6), 410–413 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sassoon, D. J.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoshani, O.

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R. S.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smye, S. W.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

Sun, C.-K.

H. Chen, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, C.-M. Chiu, Y.-F. Tsai, T.-F. Tseng, J.-T. Lu, W.-L. Lai, and C.-K. Sun, “Performance of THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy to diagnose breast tumors,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19523–19531 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-20-19523 .
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Huang, T.-F. Tseng, C.-C. Kuo, Y. J. Hwang, and C.-K. Sun, “Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1344–1346 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-9-1344 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-M. Chiu, H.-W. Chen, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “THz interferometric imaging using subwavelength plastic fiber based THz endoscopes,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2494–2501 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2494 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, Y.-T. Li, C. L. Pan, J. L. Kuo, J. Y. Lu, L. J. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Investigation on spectral loss characteristics of subwavelength terahertz fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1017–1019 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-9-1017 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-J. Chen, H.-W. Chen, T.-F. Kao, J.-Y. Lu, and C.-K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-3-308 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sy, M. Y.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, M.

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tewari, P.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, V.

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y.-F.

Tseng, T.-F.

Ullmann, Y.

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Upadhyay, R.

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandeweyer, E.

E. Vandeweyer and D. Hertens, “Quantification of glands and fat in breast tissue: an experimental determination,” Ann. Anat. 184(2), 181–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, G. C.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

Wang, Y.-X. J.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, S.

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

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T. T. Alagaratnam and J. Wong, “Limitations of mammography in Chinese females,” Clin. Radiol. 36(2), 175–177 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Sandby-Møller, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness at different body sites: relationship to age, gender, pigmentation, blood content, skin type and smoking habits,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 83(6), 410–413 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. T.

Zhang, Y.-T.

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimdars, D.

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zinov'ev, N. N.

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zinreich, E. S.

A. C. M. Onuigbo, M. E. Cuffy-Hallam, N. A. Dunsmore, and E. S. Zinreich, “Mammography reveals a 2-mm intraductal breast carcinoma,” Hosp. Physician 37, 61–64 (2001).

Acta Derm. Venereol. (2)

J. Sandby-Møller, T. Poulsen, and H. C. Wulf, “Epidermal thickness at different body sites: relationship to age, gender, pigmentation, blood content, skin type and smoking habits,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 83(6), 410–413 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Egawa, T. Hirao, and M. Takahashi, “In vivo estimation of stratum corneum thickness from water concentration profiles obtained with Raman spectroscopy,” Acta Derm. Venereol. 87(1), 4–8 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Anat. (1)

E. Vandeweyer and D. Hertens, “Quantification of glands and fat in breast tissue: an experimental determination,” Ann. Anat. 184(2), 181–184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Intern. Med. (1)

N. T. Brewer, T. Salz, and S. E. Lillie, “Systematic review: the long-term effects of false-positive mammograms,” Ann. Intern. Med. 146(7), 502–510 (2007).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J.-Y. Lu, C.-M. Chiu, C.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Lai, H.-C. Chang, Y.-J. Hwang, C.-L. Pan, and C.-K. Sun, “Terahertz scanning imaging with a subwavelength plastic fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 084102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Radiol. (1)

T. T. Alagaratnam and J. Wong, “Limitations of mammography in Chinese females,” Clin. Radiol. 36(2), 175–177 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

Y. Ullmann, O. Shoshani, A. Fodor, Y. Ramon, N. Carmi, L. Eldor, and A. Gilhar, “Searching for the favorable donor site for fat injection: in vivo study using the nude mice model,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(10), 1304–1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosp. Physician (1)

A. C. M. Onuigbo, M. E. Cuffy-Hallam, N. A. Dunsmore, and E. S. Zinreich, “Mammography reveals a 2-mm intraductal breast carcinoma,” Hosp. Physician 37, 61–64 (2001).

J. Anat. (1)

D. T. Ramsay, J. C. Kent, R. A. Hartmann, and P. E. Hartmann, “Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging,” J. Anat. 206(6), 525–534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. B. Bennett, Z. D. Taylor, P. Tewari, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, W. S. Grundfest, D. J. Sassoon, R. D. Johnson, J.-P. Hubschman, and E. R. Brown, “Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 057003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laser Appl. (1)

E. Berry, G. C. Walker, A. J. Fitzgerald, N. N. Zinov'ev, M. Chamberlain, S. W. Smye, R. E. Miles, and M. A. Smith, “Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines?” J. Laser Appl. 15(3), 192–198 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. (1)

S. A. Feig and R. E. Hendrick, “Radiation risk from screening mammography of women aged 40-49 years,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 22(22), 119–124 (1997).
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J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Bindu, S. J. Abraham, A. Lonappan, V. Thomas, C. K. Aanandan, and K. T. Mathew, “Detection of dielectric contrast of breast tissues using confocal microwave technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(6), 1187–1190 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

I. Duling and D. Zimdars, “Terahertz imaging revealing hidden defects,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 630–632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Weissleder and M. J. Pittet, “Imaging in the era of molecular oncology,” Nature 452(7187), 580–589 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W.-H. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 7897, 78970C, 78970C-6 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (2)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Gee, R. Upadhyay, H. Bergquist, H. Alencar, F. Reynolds, M. Maricevich, R. Weissleder, L. Josephson, and U. Mahmood, “Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy,” Radiology 248(3), 925–935 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stud. Health Technol. Inform. (1)

P. Tewari, Z. D. Taylor, D. Bennett, R. S. Singh, M. O. Culjat, C. P. Kealey, J. P. Hubschman, S. White, A. Cochran, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “Terahertz imaging of biological tissues,” Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 163, 653–657 (2011).
[PubMed]

World J. Radiol. (1)

Y. Sun, M. Y. Sy, Y.-X. J. Wang, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy,” World J. Radiol. 3(3), 55–65 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

K.-H. Ng, “Non-ionizing radiations: sources, biological effects, emissions and exposures,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Non-Ionizing Radiation at UNITEN (ICNIR2003) Electromagnetic Fields and Our Health (Selangor, Malaysia, 2003), pp. 1–16.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, S. E. Pinder, E. Provenzano, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz spectroscopy of breast tumors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves and Terahertz Electronics (Cardiff, UK, 2007), pp. 603–605.

S. J. Nass, I. C. Henderson, and J. C. Lashof, “Mammography and beyond: developing techniques for the early detection of breast cancer,” in Institute of Medicine (National Academy Press, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

T1-weighted MRI images: (a), (c) axial view; (b), (d) sagittal view. The images were acquired on the 5th day (a, b) and 35th day (c, d) after fat implantation, and the fat area was marked by red boundary.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ex vivo measured absorption spectra of pure water (black solid circles), breast cancerous tissues (red solid circles) and fatty tissues (blue solid circles). (b) In vivo measured absorption spectra of fatty tissues (blue solid circles) and mouse skin (green solid circles). The error bars represent the standard deviation of the mean and the test number is 10.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of the THz fiber-scanning transmission imaging system. (b) Photograph of the T-ray imaging system. (c) A direct 2D (x-y) 10mm × 10mm scanning image of air. Power transmission was measured at different fiber bending angles, and the maximum angle-induced 1D fiber bending loss is about 10%. The S/N ratio of the imaging system is 105:1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)-(e) Photos of a mouse taken during preparation: (a) A visible breast tumor with a size about 2.1mm×3.2mm×1.3mm developed on the 46th day after the cancer cell implantation; (b)-(c) Fat implantation; (d)-(e) Stretched mouse dorsal skin with area 15mm×10mm and sandwiched by two 2mm cover glasses. (f) In vivo THz imaging of a visible cancer in mouse dorsal skin. The color bar is defined as α from 1.4mm−1 to 2.1mm−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A series of THz images according to the screening time from the 13th day to the 33th day after the cancer cell implantation. Early cancer development was detected on the 23th day, and the induced absorption coefficient change was 0.25mm−1, corresponding to a cancer volume of 1.3mm3. For the images from the 23th day to the 33th day, the color bar was defined according to the maximum measured absorption coefficient, while from the 13th day to the 17th day, the image color bar was defined according to the 23th day.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Another series of THz images according to the screening time from the 18th day to the 30th day after the cancer cell implantation in the specific mouse.

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