Abstract

Electrically driven subwavelength scale metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers are designed and experimentally demonstrated. The metallo-dielectric cavity significantly enhances the quality factor (Q > 1500) of the wavelength and subwavelength scale lasers and the pedestal structure significantly reduces the threshold gain (< 400 cm−1) which can potentially enable laser operation at room temperature. We observed continuous wave lasing in 750 nm gain core radius laser at temperatures between 77 K and 140 K with a threshold current of 50 μA (at 77 K). We also observed lasing from a 355 nm gain core radius laser at temperatures between 77 K and 100 K.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. J. Levi, “Microdisk lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 37(4-6), 1297–1302 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Perahia, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  8. M. W. Kim and P.-C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. A. Miller, “Optical Interconnects to Silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  15. M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Asada and Y. Suematsu, “Density-matrix theory of semiconductor lasers with relaxation broadening model-gain and gain-suppresion in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 434–442 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Liu, J. M. Shainline, G. E. Fernandes, J. Xu, J. Chen, and C. F. Gmachl, “Continuous-wave subwavelength microdisk lasers at ? = 1.53 µm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19242–19248 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543–1548 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. W. Kim and P.-C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Shainline, G. E. Fernandes, J. Xu, J. Chen, and C. F. Gmachl, “Continuous-wave subwavelength microdisk lasers at ? = 1.53 µm,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19242–19248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Perahia, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543–1548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. A. Miller, “Optical Interconnects to Silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. F. J. Levi, “Microdisk lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 37(4-6), 1297–1302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Asada and Y. Suematsu, “Density-matrix theory of semiconductor lasers with relaxation broadening model-gain and gain-suppresion in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 434–442 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Albert, F.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asada, M.

M. Asada and Y. Suematsu, “Density-matrix theory of semiconductor lasers with relaxation broadening model-gain and gain-suppresion in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 434–442 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-H.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Braun, T.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandes, G. E.

Forchel, A.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C. F.

Heindel, T.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Höfling, S.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y.-G.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[PubMed]

Karouta, F.

Kihara, M.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. W.

M. W. Kim and P.-C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. K.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kim, S.-B.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, P.-C.

M. W. Kim and P.-C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakhani, A.

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[PubMed]

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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289 (1992).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Marell, M.

Mayer Alegre, T. P.

R. Perahia, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201114 (2009).
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S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289 (1992).
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D. A. Miller, “Optical Interconnects to Silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, B. A. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, L. Feng, and Y. Fainman, “Low threshold gain metal coated laser nanoresonators,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1261–1263 (2008).
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Ning, C.-Z.

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
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M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
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M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
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Painter, O.

R. Perahia, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201114 (2009).
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O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. G.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[PubMed]

Park, H.-G.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perahia, R.

R. Perahia, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201114 (2009).
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S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543–1548 (2007).
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Reitzenstein, S.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
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Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

R. Perahia, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201114 (2009).
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Sakai, A.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, C.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543–1548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shainline, J. M.

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simic, A.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B. A.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suematsu, Y.

M. Asada and Y. Suematsu, “Density-matrix theory of semiconductor lasers with relaxation broadening model-gain and gain-suppresion in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 434–442 (1985).
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Sun, M.

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Van Campenhout, J.

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, R.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worschech, L.

F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Xu, J.

Yang, J.-K.

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-G. Ju, J.-K. Yang, J.-H. Baek, S.-B. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Perahia, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, and O. Painter, “Surface-plasmon mode hybridization in subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201114 (2009).
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M. W. Kim and P.-C. Ku, “Semiconductor nanoring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201105 (2011).
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F. Albert, T. Braun, T. Heindel, C. Schneider, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in electrically driven quantum dot micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Asada and Y. Suematsu, “Density-matrix theory of semiconductor lasers with relaxation broadening model-gain and gain-suppresion in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 434–442 (1985).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. A. Miller, “Optical Interconnects to Silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
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T. Baba, “Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 808–830 (1997).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Baba, M. Fujita, A. Sakai, M. Kihara, and R. Watanabe, “Lasing characteristics of GaInAsP-InP strained quantum-well microdisk injection lasers with diameter of 2-10 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(7), 878–880 (1997).
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J. Lightwave Technol.

Nano Lett.

S. H. Kwon, J. H. Kang, C. Seassal, S. K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y. H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H. G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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Nat. Photonics

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of subwavelength pedestal pillar laser shown in (a) where rcore is the radius of InGaAs gain layer, rclad is the radius of InP cladding. Δr is the difference between rcore and rclad. dshield is the thickness of SiO2 shield layer. hcore is the height of InGaAs gain medium. (b) The horizontal cross section of the electric field intensity when rcore = 750 nm, rclad = 690 nm (Δr = 60 nm), and dshield = 150 nm with silver coating. (c) The horizontal cross section of the electric field intensity in the same structure with only low index dielectric (SiO2) coating. rcore in (b) and (c) are the same as 750 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The electric field intensity at the horizontal cross section of the active layer. (a) pure dielectric cavity with rcore = 350 nm, rclad = 290 nm (Δr = 60 nm), and SiO2 coating. (b) metallo-dielectric cavity with rcore = 350 nm, rclad = 290 nm (Δr = 60 nm), dshield = 150 nm, and Ag coating. The gain structure sizes, rcore and rclad, in (a) and (b) are the same and the resonant mode is WGM with M = 3 for both cases. (c) metallo-dielectric cavity with rcore = 220 nm, rclad = 160 nm, dshield = 150 nm, and Ag coating. The resonant mode is axially symmetric TE011.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical simulation results of the cavity Q factor and threshold gain for various pedestal sizes. Δr ( = rcore - rclad) is pedestal undercut depth. (a) rcore = 750 nm, dshield = 150 nm, and rclad is varied from 750 nm to 600 nm (Δr = 0 ~150 nm). Blue curve represents the cavity Q and red curve for the threshold gain. (b) rcore = 220 nm, dshield = 150 nm, and rclad is varied from 220 nm to 70 nm (Δr = 0 ~150 nm). (c) Vertical cross section of the resonant mode field (TE011) intensity when rcore, rclad = 220 nm (Δr = 0 nm, cylinder type), and dshield = 150 nm. (d) The resonant mode field (TE011) intensity when rcore = 220 nm, rclad = 100 nm (Δr = 120 nm, pedestal type), and dshield = 150 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM micrographs of subwavelength pillar laser structure during fabrication procedure. (a) Subwavelength pillar (rcore = 395 nm) structure after dry etching. (b) Pedestal pillar is formed by selective InP wet etching. (c) Thin SiO2 layer (140 nm) is deposited on the pillar structure by PECVD. (d) N-contact metal (Ti/Pd/Au) layer deposited on the top of subwavelength pillar. (e) Silver is deposited on whole pillar structure. Scale bar in each image represents 500 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lasing characteristics of 750 nm rcore pedestal pillar laser device. (a) An SEM micrograph of 750 nm rcore pedestal pillar structure. (b) Spectral evolution graphs with increasing the injection current at 77 K. (c) L-I curve of this device. (d) Linewidth measurement by a monochromator with 0.35 nm resolution. (e) Lasing spectrum measured at 140 K. Inset shows L-I curve at 140 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Lasing characteristics of 355 nm rcore pedestal pillar laser device. (a) An SEM micrograph of 355 nm rcore pedestal pillar structure. (b) Spectral evolution graphs with increasing the injection current at 77 K. (c) L-I curve of this device. (d) Linewidth measurement by a monochromator. (e) Lasing spectrum with difference injection currents measured at 100 K.

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