Abstract

We have employed ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging to completely characterize the focal spot wavefield and wavefront aberrations of a high-resolution diffractive X-ray lens. The ptychographic data from a strongly scattering object was acquired using the radiation cone emanating from a coherently illuminated Fresnel zone plate at a photon energy of 6.2 keV. Reconstructed images of the object were retrieved with a spatial resolution of 8 nm by combining the difference-map phase retrieval algorithm with a non-linear optimization refinement. By numerically propagating the reconstructed illumination function, we have obtained the X-ray wavefield profile of the 23 nm round focus of the Fresnel zone plate (outermost zone width, Δr = 20 nm) as well as the X-ray wavefront at the exit pupil of the lens. The measurements of the wavefront aberrations were repeatable to within a root mean square error of 0.006 waves, and we demonstrate that they can be related to manufacturing aspects of the diffractive optical element and to errors on the incident X-ray wavefront introduced by the upstream beamline optics.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Thibault and V. Elser, “X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237–255 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2758–2769 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. van der Veen and F. Pfeiffer, “Coherent X-ray scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter16, 5003–5030 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G489–G492 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16, 7264–7278 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248–261 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. O. Saxton and W. Baumeister, “The correlation averaging of regularly arranged bacterial cell envelop protein,” J. Microsc. 127, 127–138 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33, 156–158 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  38. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed., (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 1996) Chap. 3, Foundations of Scalar Diffraction Theory, pp. 55–62.

2011 (4)

2010 (10)

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault and V. Elser, “X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach,” Opt. Express 16, 7264–7278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33, 156–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2758–2769 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. O. Saxton and W. Baumeister, “The correlation averaging of regularly arranged bacterial cell envelop protein,” J. Microsc. 127, 127–138 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaltonen, T.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Assoufid, L.

Barrett, R.

Barty, A.

Baumeister, W.

W. O. Saxton and W. Baumeister, “The correlation averaging of regularly arranged bacterial cell envelop protein,” J. Microsc. 127, 127–138 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beetz, T.

Benson, C.

Bergamaschi, A.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boege, M.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brönnimann, C.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bulgheroni, W.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, C.

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M. D.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhal, B. B.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Dierolf, M.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dinapoli, R.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikenberry, E. F.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elser, V.

P. Thibault and V. Elser, “X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans-Lutterodt, K.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Färm, E.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldkamp, J. M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Giewekemeyer, K.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed., (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 1996) Chap. 3, Foundations of Scalar Diffraction Theory, pp. 55–62.

Gorelick, S.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graafsma, H.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Gulden, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guzenko, V. A.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handa, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hara, T.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

He, H.

Henrich, B.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holler, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Holt, M. V.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hönig, S.

Hoppe, R.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M. R.

Humphry, M. J.

Hurst, A. C.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ingold, G.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C.

Jefimovs, K.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, I.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jonhson, I.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalbfleisch, S.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keller, A.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kewish, C. M.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khounsary, A. M.

Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, H.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kobas, M.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, P.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krempaski, J.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kynde, S.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, M. S.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Macrander, A. T.

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maiden, A. M.

Mancuso, A. P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, S.

Marti, O.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maser, J.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, A.

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Metzler, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mozzanica, A.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, S.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noy, A.

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, D.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patommel, J.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. van der Veen and F. Pfeiffer, “Coherent X-ray scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter16, 5003–5030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pilvi, T.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

Quiney, H. M.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, J.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodenburg, J. M.

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R.

Salditt, T.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sammelselg, V.

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandy, A. R.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

W. O. Saxton and W. Baumeister, “The correlation averaging of regularly arranged bacterial cell envelop protein,” J. Microsc. 127, 127–138 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayre, D.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, M.

M. van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlepütz, C. M.

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlichting, I.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, T.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, B.

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schöder, S.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, A.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, L.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schulze-Briese, C.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D.

Shi, B.

Spence, J. C. H.

Stein, A.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, S.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324–16329 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, G. B.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault and V. Elser, “X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thurman, S. T.

Tran, C. Q.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Veen, F.

F. van der Veen and F. Pfeiffer, “Coherent X-ray scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter16, 5003–5030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Heel, M.

M. van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, E. Färm, C. M. Kewish, A. Diaz, R. Barrett, V. A. Guzenko, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Ultra-high resolution zone-doubled diffractive X-ray optics for the multi-kev regime.”Opt. Express 19, 175–184 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. M. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. R. Fienup, A. T. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

von König, K.

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weierstall, U.

Wepf, R. A.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Wilke, R. N.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winarski, R. P.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yabashi, M.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zimoch, D.

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62, 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

G. Ingold, M. Boege, W. Bulgheroni, A. Keller, J. Krempaski, C. Schulze-Briese, L. Schulz, T. Schmidt, D. Zimoch, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, and H. Kitamura, “Performance of small-gap undulators at the SLS intermediate energy storage ring,” AIP Conf. Proc. 879, 388–391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (1)

P. Thibault and V. Elser, “X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard X-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard X-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, and G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard X-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

T. Aaltonen, M. Ritala, V. Sammelselg, and M. Leskelä, “Atomic layer deposition of iridium thin films,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G489–G492 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

W. O. Saxton and W. Baumeister, “The correlation averaging of regularly arranged bacterial cell envelop protein,” J. Microsc. 127, 127–138 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

M. van Heel and M. Schatz, “Fourier shell correlation threshold criteria,” J. Struct. Biol. 151, 250–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Vila-Comamala, S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, E. Färm, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Dense high aspect ratio hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures by 100 kev electron beam lithography,” Nanotechnology 21, 285305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

B. Henrich, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, P. Kraft, A. Mozzanica, and B. Schmitt, “PILATUS: A single photon counting pixel detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 607, 247–249 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution X-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard X-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (4)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, P. Kraft, B. Henrich, K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, C. David, M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with a fast framing pixel detector,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 1143–1147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Jonhson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108, 481–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Dierolf, P. Thibault, A. Menzel, C. M. Kewish, K. Jefimovs, I. Schlichting, K. von König, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens,” New J. Phys.12, 035017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. van der Veen and F. Pfeiffer, “Coherent X-ray scattering,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter16, 5003–5030 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kraft, A. Bergamaschi, C. Brönnimann, R. Dinapoli, E. F. Eikenberry, H. Graafsma, B. Henrich, I. Johnson, M. Kobas, A. Mozzanica, C. M. Schlepütz, and B. Schmitt, “Characterization and calibration of PILATUS detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56, 758–764 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Diaz, M. Holler, M. S. Lucas, A. Menzel, R. A. Wepf, and O. Bunk, “Phase tomography from X-ray coherent diffractive imaging projections,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed., (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 1996) Chap. 3, Foundations of Scalar Diffraction Theory, pp. 55–62.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Experimental setup employed for Fresnel zone plate characterization by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging, sketch not drawn to scale. (b) Scanning electron micrograph showing the outermost region of the Fresnel zone plate made of zone-doubled iridium structures of 20 nm width and 550 nm height. (c) Scanning electron micrograph showing the nanofabricated pattern made of silicon oxide and iridium that was used as object. (d) Example of a diffraction pattern frame acquired by the PILATUS 2M detector at one position of the ptychographic scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) (a) Ptychographic reconstructed phase image of the object consisiting of nanofabricated structures made of silicon oxide and iridium. (b) Power spectrum of the phase object image. (c) Fourier ring correlation (FRC) plot demonstrating a spatial resolution of 8 nm in the phase image of the object reconstruction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Intensity of the reconstructed illumination function at the object plane. (b) Propagation along the optical axis of the X-ray beam at the vicinity of the focal plane of the high-resolution Fresnel zone plate. (c) Wavefield intensity distribution at the focal plane. The size of the focal spot is estimated to be 22.5×23.8 nm2 (H×V of FWHM).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Amplitude and (b) wavefront aberrations at the exit pupil of the high-resolution Fresnel zone plate. The root mean square in the wavefront aberrations are found to be 0.7213 rad (0.1148 waves). The numbering indicates the radial positions where buttressing periodicity is changed and relates to Fig. 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron micrographs of the high-resolution zone-doubled Fresnel zone plate. Insets show magnified images at radial positions where the buttressing periodicity is changed.

Metrics