Abstract

We present a novel optical method for edge enhancement in color images based on the polarization properties of liquid-crystal displays (LCD). In principle, a LCD generates simultaneously two color-complementary, orthogonally polarized replicas of the digital image used as input. The currently viewed image in standard LCD monitors and cell phone’s screens -which we will refer as the “positive image or true-color image”- is the one obtained by placing an analyzer in front of the LCD, in cross configuration to the back polarizer of the display. The orthogonally polarized replica of this image –the “negative image or complementary-color image”- is absorbed by the front polarizer. In order to generate the positive and negative replica with a slight displacement between them, we used a LCD monitor whose analyzer (originally a linear polarizer) was replaced by a calcite crystal acting as beam displacer. When both images are superimposed laterally displaced across the image plane, one obtains an image with enhanced first-order derivatives along a specific direction. The proposed technique works under incoherent illumination and does not require precise alignment, and thus, it could be potentially useful for processing large color images in real-time applications. Validation experiments are presented.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. R. Weeks, C. E. Felix, and H. R. Myler, “Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space,” Proc. SPIE 2424, 291–301 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. L. Novak and S. A. Shafer, “Color edge detection,” in Proceedings of DARPA Image Understanding workshop, Los Angeles, CA, USA, vol.1, (1987), pp. 35–37.
  6. X. Chen and H. Chen, “A novel color edge detection algorithm in RGB color space,” International Conference on Signal Processing Proceedings, ICSP, art. no. 5655926, pp. 793–796 (2010).
  7. M. Hedley and H. Yan, “Segmentation of color images using spatial and color space information,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(4), 374–380 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Carron and P. Lambert, “Color edge detector using jointly hue, saturation and intensity,” in Proceedings of ICIP-94, (IEEE, 1994), pp. 977–981.
  9. J. Scharcanski and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Edge detection of color images using directional operators,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 7(2), 397–401 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Color edge detection using vector order statistics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(2), 259–264 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Vector order statistics operators as color edge detectors,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 26(1), 135–143 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. Ferrari, J. L. Flores, and G. Garcia-Torales, “Directional edge enhancement using a liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2803–2806 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. L. Flores and J. A. Ferrari, “Orientation-selective edge detection and enhancement using the irradiance transport equation,” Appl. Opt. 49(4), 619–624 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002), Chap. 8.
  15. http://www2.ambientdesign.com/gallery/showimage.php?i=7082 .
  16. http://www.etsy.com/listing/79045428/frida-kahlo-picks-flowers-for-her-hair .
  17. http://www.foroxerbar.com/viewtopic.php?t=5794&kb=true .
  18. J. L. Flores, J. A. Ferrari, J. A. Ramos, J. R. Alonso, and A. Fernández, “Analog image contouring using a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19163–19168 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Zhang, J. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Image parallel processing based on GPU,” International Conference on Advanced Computer Control (ICACC), 367–370 (2010).
  20. C. Claus, R. Huitl, J. Rausch, and W. Stechele, “Optimizing the SUSAN corner detection algorithm for a high speed FPGA implementation,” International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications, 138–145 (2009).
  21. J. F. Wager and R. Hoffman, “Thin, fast, and flexible semiconductors,” IEEE Spectrum 48(5), 42–56 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. F. Wager and R. Hoffman, “Thin, fast, and flexible semiconductors,” IEEE Spectrum 48(5), 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2001 (1)

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Scharcanski and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Edge detection of color images using directional operators,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 7(2), 397–401 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Vector order statistics operators as color edge detectors,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 26(1), 135–143 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. R. Weeks, C. E. Felix, and H. R. Myler, “Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space,” Proc. SPIE 2424, 291–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Color edge detection using vector order statistics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(2), 259–264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Hedley and H. Yan, “Segmentation of color images using spatial and color space information,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(4), 374–380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. Nevatia, “A color edge detector and its use in scene segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 820–826 (1977).

Alonso, J. R.

Aref, W. G.

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartwright, C. M.

Elmagarmid, A. K.

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felix, C. E.

A. R. Weeks, C. E. Felix, and H. R. Myler, “Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space,” Proc. SPIE 2424, 291–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, A.

Ferrari, J. A.

Flores, J. L.

Garcia-Torales, G.

J. A. Ferrari, J. L. Flores, and G. Garcia-Torales, “Directional edge enhancement using a liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2803–2806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guan, J.-H.

Hedley, M.

M. Hedley and H. Yan, “Segmentation of color images using spatial and color space information,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(4), 374–380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, R.

J. F. Wager and R. Hoffman, “Thin, fast, and flexible semiconductors,” IEEE Spectrum 48(5), 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, B.-L.

Liu, H.-L.

Mu, G.-G.

Myler, H. R.

A. R. Weeks, C. E. Felix, and H. R. Myler, “Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space,” Proc. SPIE 2424, 291–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nevatia, R.

R. Nevatia, “A color edge detector and its use in scene segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 820–826 (1977).

Ramos, J. A.

Scharcanski, J.

J. Scharcanski and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Edge detection of color images using directional operators,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 7(2), 397–401 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trahanias, P. E.

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Vector order statistics operators as color edge detectors,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 26(1), 135–143 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Color edge detection using vector order statistics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(2), 259–264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venetsanopoulos, A. N.

J. Scharcanski and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Edge detection of color images using directional operators,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 7(2), 397–401 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Vector order statistics operators as color edge detectors,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 26(1), 135–143 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Color edge detection using vector order statistics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(2), 259–264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wager, J. F.

J. F. Wager and R. Hoffman, “Thin, fast, and flexible semiconductors,” IEEE Spectrum 48(5), 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.-Q.

Weeks, A. R.

A. R. Weeks, C. E. Felix, and H. R. Myler, “Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space,” Proc. SPIE 2424, 291–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

M. Hedley and H. Yan, “Segmentation of color images using spatial and color space information,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(4), 374–380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yau, D. Y.

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Spectrum (1)

J. F. Wager and R. Hoffman, “Thin, fast, and flexible semiconductors,” IEEE Spectrum 48(5), 42–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. (1)

J. Scharcanski and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Edge detection of color images using directional operators,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 7(2), 397–401 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (2)

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Color edge detection using vector order statistics,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2(2), 259–264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan, D. Y. Yau, A. K. Elmagarmid, and W. G. Aref, “Automatic image segmentation by integrating color-edge extraction and seeded region growing,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10(10), 1454–1466 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

R. Nevatia, “A color edge detector and its use in scene segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-7, 820–826 (1977).

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. (1)

P. E. Trahanias and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, “Vector order statistics operators as color edge detectors,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. B Cybern. 26(1), 135–143 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

M. Hedley and H. Yan, “Segmentation of color images using spatial and color space information,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(4), 374–380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. A. Ferrari, J. L. Flores, and G. Garcia-Torales, “Directional edge enhancement using a liquid-crystal display,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2803–2806 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. R. Weeks, C. E. Felix, and H. R. Myler, “Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space,” Proc. SPIE 2424, 291–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

C. L. Novak and S. A. Shafer, “Color edge detection,” in Proceedings of DARPA Image Understanding workshop, Los Angeles, CA, USA, vol.1, (1987), pp. 35–37.

X. Chen and H. Chen, “A novel color edge detection algorithm in RGB color space,” International Conference on Signal Processing Proceedings, ICSP, art. no. 5655926, pp. 793–796 (2010).

T. Carron and P. Lambert, “Color edge detector using jointly hue, saturation and intensity,” in Proceedings of ICIP-94, (IEEE, 1994), pp. 977–981.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002), Chap. 8.

http://www2.ambientdesign.com/gallery/showimage.php?i=7082 .

http://www.etsy.com/listing/79045428/frida-kahlo-picks-flowers-for-her-hair .

http://www.foroxerbar.com/viewtopic.php?t=5794&kb=true .

N. Zhang, J. Wang, and Y. Chen, “Image parallel processing based on GPU,” International Conference on Advanced Computer Control (ICACC), 367–370 (2010).

C. Claus, R. Huitl, J. Rausch, and W. Stechele, “Optimizing the SUSAN corner detection algorithm for a high speed FPGA implementation,” International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications, 138–145 (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed setup. For illustrative purposes, narrow light beams with (intentionally) exaggerated lateral displacements are shown. But actually, the beams cover the prism aperture and the slightly displaced images I + and I will overlap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results using a geometric abstraction image created by Byron Callas as test image: (a) true-color image; (b) complementary-color image; (c) and (d) optically processed images with fist-order derivative in y- and x- direction, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results using Tascha’s picture Frida Kahlo picks flowers for her hair as test image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results using Eduardo Urculo’s picture Catprovi as test image.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I + (x,y)+ I (x,y)= I 0 ,
I out (x,y)= c + I + (x,y)+ c I (x+Δx,y),
I out (x,y)=( c + c ) I + (x,y) c { I + (x+Δx,y) I + (x,y) }+ c I 0 .
Δxzδ/f.

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