Abstract

An original atmospheric correction algorithm, so-called multi-directionality and POLarization-based Atmospheric Correction (POLAC), is described. This algorithm is based on the characteristics of the multidirectional and polarimetric data of the satellite PARASOL (CNES). POLAC algorithm is used to assess the influence of the polarimetric information in the visible bands on the retrieval of the aerosol properties and the water-leaving radiance over open ocean waters. This study points out that the use of the polarized signal significantly improves the aerosol type determination. The use of the polarized information at one visible wavelength only, namely 490 nm, allows providing estimates of the Angstrom exponent of aerosol optical depth with an uncertainty lower than 4%. Based on PARASOL observations, it is shown that the detection of the fine aerosols is improved when exploiting polarization data. The atmospheric component of the satellite signal is then better modeled, thus improving de facto the water-leaving radiance estimation.

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2010 (3)

2009 (2)

A. Morel, “Are the empirical relationships describing the bio-optical properties of case 1 waters consistent and internally compatible?” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C1), C01016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Martinez, D. Antoine, F. D’Ortenzio, and B. Gentili, “Climate-driven basin-scale decadal oscillations of oceanic phytoplankton,” Science 326(5957), 1253–1256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. J. Polovina, E. A. Howell, and M. Abecassis, “Ocean's least productive waters are expanding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(3), L03618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113(C7), C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Harmel and M. Chami, “Invariance of polarized reflectance measured at the top of atmosphere by PARASOL satellite instrument in the visible range with marine constituents in open ocean waters,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6064–6080 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 112(C5), C05026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Doron, M. Babin, A. Mangin, and O. Hembise, “Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 112(C6), C06003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Zubko, Y. J. Kaufman, R. I. Burg, and J. V. Martins, “Principal component analysis of remote sensing of aerosols over oceans,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 45(3), 730–745 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. B. Rossow, and L. D. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 106(1-3), 325–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, G. Bracco, B. Lafrance, C. Ruffel, O. Hagolle, and C. Tinel, “PARASOL in-flight calibration and performance,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5435–5451 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

S. Y. Kotchenova, E. F. Vermote, R. Matarrese, and F. J. Klemm., “Validation of a vector version of the 6S radiative transfer code for atmospheric correction of satellite data. Part I: path radiance,” Appl. Opt. 45(26), 6762–6774 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boesche, P. Stammes, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Effect of aerosol microphysical properties on polarization of skylight: sensitivity study and measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45(34), 8790–8805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, and B. N. Holben, “Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D07207 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444(7120), 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Bréon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 110(D10), D10S02 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43(5), 1180–1195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bosc, A. Bricaud, and D. Antoine, “Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea, as derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS observations,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18(1), GB1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

N. T. O'Neill, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, and S. Thulasiraman, “Spectral discrimination of coarse and fine mode optical depth,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D17), 4559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Light scattering from the spherical-shell atmosphere: earth curvature effects measured by SeaWiFS,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(48), 529–534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, “Optical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol in Maritime Environments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 501–523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, and O. Dubovik, “Baseline maritime aerosol: methodology to derive the optical thickness and scattering properties,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(17), 3251–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40(15), 2398–2416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, and H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: Their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(C3), 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D8), 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, “Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 105(D12), 15329–15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

P. N. Francis, P. Hignett, and J. P. Taylor, “Aircraft observations and modeling of sky radiance distributions from aerosol during TARFOX,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D2), 2309–2319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O'Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D24), 31333–31349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37(3), 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, and T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2229–2259 (1999).

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET-A Federated Instrument Network and Data Archive for Aerosol Characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, D. L. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for Seawifs,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (7)

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380-700 nm) of pure water. 2. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, and S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 102(D14), 16971–16988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, R. A. Kahn, and R. A. West, “Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 16831–16847 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: Effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 102(D12), 13543–13553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 102(D14), 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrere, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, “POLDER level 1 processing algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 2758,308–319 (1996).

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, and P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: In situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C6), 14,361–314,371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

1989 (1)

J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and R. Santer, “Fourier-Series Expansion Of The Transfer Equation In The Atmosphere Ocean System,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 41(6), 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, “The 3*3 approximation in the CP representation of the Stokes vector in polarized-radiation transport in planetary atmospheres,” Kinematics Phys. Celestial Bodies 3, 29–34 (1987).

J. W. Hovenier, “A unified treatment of polarized light emerging from a homogeneous plane-parallel atmosphere,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 363–370 (1987).

1984 (1)

1978 (3)

Y. Kawata, “Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by planetary atmospheres,” Icarus 33(1), 217–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Adams and G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative transfer in spherical shell atmospheres: I. Rayleigh scattering,” Icarus 35(1), 139–151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12(1-3), 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. D. King and D. M. Byrne, “A Method for Inferring Total Ozone Content from the Spectral Variation of Total Optical Depth Obtained with a Solar Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33(11), 2242–2251 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. E. Hansen, “Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres part II. Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28(8), 1400–1426 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. Bader, “Hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75(15), 2822–2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

C. Junge, “The size distribution and aging of natural aerosols as determined from electrical and optical data on the atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 12, 13–25 (1955).

1929 (1)

A. Ångström, “On the Atmospheric Transmission of Sun Radiation and on Dust in the Air,” Geogr. Ann. 11, 156–166 (1929).
[CrossRef]

1871 (1)

J. W. Strutt, “On the light from the sky, its polarisation and colour. II,” Philos. Mag. 41, 274–279 (1871).

1852 (1)

G. G. Stokes, “On the composition and resolution of streams of polarized light from different sources,” Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 3, 233–259 (1852).

Abecassis, M.

J. J. Polovina, E. A. Howell, and M. Abecassis, “Ocean's least productive waters are expanding,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(3), L03618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. N.

C. N. Adams and G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative transfer in spherical shell atmospheres: I. Rayleigh scattering,” Icarus 35(1), 139–151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alvain, S.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Bréon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, “On the Atmospheric Transmission of Sun Radiation and on Dust in the Air,” Geogr. Ann. 11, 156–166 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

E. Martinez, D. Antoine, F. D’Ortenzio, and B. Gentili, “Climate-driven basin-scale decadal oscillations of oceanic phytoplankton,” Science 326(5957), 1253–1256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113(C7), C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bosc, A. Bricaud, and D. Antoine, “Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea, as derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS observations,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18(1), GB1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

M. Doron, M. Babin, A. Mangin, and O. Hembise, “Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 112(C6), C06003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, “Hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes,” J. Geophys. Res. 75(15), 2822–2830 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

Bailleul, T.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37(3), 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

Bécu, G.

D. Antoine, F. d'Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113(C7), C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444(7120), 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boesche, E.

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bosc, E.

E. Bosc, A. Bricaud, and D. Antoine, “Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea, as derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS observations,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18(1), GB1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E. S.

M. J. Behrenfeld, R. T. O’Malley, D. A. Siegel, C. R. McClain, J. L. Sarmiento, G. C. Feldman, A. J. Milligan, P. G. Falkowski, R. M. Letelier, and E. S. Boss, “Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity,” Nature 444(7120), 752–755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bracco, G.

Breon, F. M.

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 106(D5), 4913–4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, “The polder mission - instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 32(3), 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Bréon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bret-Dibat, T.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrere, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, “POLDER level 1 processing algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 2758,308–319 (1996).

Bricaud, A.

E. Bosc, A. Bricaud, and D. Antoine, “Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea, as derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS observations,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18(1), GB1005 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, “The polder mission - instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 32(3), 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briottet, X.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37(3), 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET-A Federated Instrument Network and Data Archive for Aerosol Characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burg, R. I.

V. Zubko, Y. J. Kaufman, R. I. Burg, and J. V. Martins, “Principal component analysis of remote sensing of aerosols over oceans,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 45(3), 730–745 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, “The polder mission - instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 32(3), 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King and D. M. Byrne, “A Method for Inferring Total Ozone Content from the Spectral Variation of Total Optical Depth Obtained with a Solar Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33(11), 2242–2251 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. B. Rossow, and L. D. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 106(1-3), 325–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, D. L. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for Seawifs,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, B. E.

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. B. Rossow, and L. D. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 106(1-3), 325–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

Chowdhary, J.

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. B. Rossow, and L. D. Travis, “Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 106(1-3), 325–347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C13), 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clerici, M.

F. Mélin, M. Clerici, G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, and A. Smirnov, “Validation of SeaWiFS and MODIS aerosol products with globally distributed AERONET data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 114(2), 230–250 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cosnefroy, H.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, and M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37(3), 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cunin, L.

O. Hagolle, A. Guerry, L. Cunin, B. Millet, J. Perbos, J. M. Laherrere, T. Bret-Dibat, and L. Poutier, “POLDER level 1 processing algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 2758,308–319 (1996).

D’Ortenzio, F.

E. Martinez, D. Antoine, F. D’Ortenzio, and B. Gentili, “Climate-driven basin-scale decadal oscillations of oceanic phytoplankton,” Science 326(5957), 1253–1256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dandonneau, Y.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F. M. Bréon, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 52(11), 1989–2004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, O. Munoz, E. Rol, J. F. de Haan, W. Vassen, J. W. Hovenier, K. Muinonen, and T. Nousiainen, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles at 441.6 nm and 632.8 nm,” J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 106(D15), 17375–17401 (2001).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the so-called multi-directionality and POLarization-based Atmospheric Correction (POLAC) algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between the desired aerosol optical thickness, τa(in), and the retrieved value τa(out) using three procedures: (i) τa* is calculated by minimizing the multi-directional cost function J*, (ii) average of τa,dir obtained by minimization of the mono-directional cost functions J, (iii) median value of τa,dir dir obtained by minimization of the mono-directional cost functions J. N: number of points, r: correlation coefficient, APD: absolute percentage difference, AD: absolute difference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of the marine reflectance computation step for a pixel of a PARASOL image measured at 490 nm over the Mediterranean Sea. The multi-directional cost function J* is calculated for different chlorophyll concentrations and different Junge exponents (4.0 (diamonds), 4.5 (squares), 5.0 (circles) of phytoplankton size distribution. Then, a polynomial is used to fit the function J* with respect to the marine reflectance ρw(0-). The vertical bars correspond to the standard deviation of the mono-directional cost function J over the viewing directions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the different steps of the POLAC algorithm. For each step, the vector x of the parameters which need to be retrieved, the PARASOL data and the directional cost function used are mentioned in the figure. NIR means the near-infrared part of the spectrum, ρw is the nadir marine reflectance just beneath the sea surface, the functions J and J* are the mono- and multi-directional cost functions, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between the desired Angstrom exponents, αang(in), and the exponents retrieved by the algorithm, αang(out), when three different combinations of the Stokes parameters are used as inputs to the algorithm for clear atmosphere conditions (aerosol optical thickness of 0.1 at 550nm). The following spectral bands have been used for the retrievals: 865 nm for I and 490, 670 and 865 nm for Q and U.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 5 for moderately turbid atmosphere conditions (aerosol optical thickness of 0.5 at 550 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between the desired Angstrom exponents, αang(in), and the exponents retrieved by the algorithm, αang(out), when the Stokes parameters Q and U are used as inputs to the algorithms for three different combinations of PARASOL bands. Clear atmosphere conditions (aerosol optical thickness of 0.1 at 550nm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Similar to Fig. 7 but for moderately turbid atmosphere conditions (aerosol optical thickness of 0.5 at 550nm).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison between the desired nadir subsurface marine reflectances ρw-(in) and the retrieved ones ρw-(out) for synthetic pixels contaminated by spectral and directional noise values of 0% and 1% respectively. The pixels were simulated for different aerosol models with an optical thickness of 0.1 at 550 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Level 2 satellite images acquired on May 5th 2006 over the Mediterranean Sea. (a) SeaWiFS Aerosol optical thickness at 865nm and (b) SeaWiFS chlorophyll concentration in mg m−3, (c) Aerosol optical thickness at 865nm as derived by POLAC applied to the level 1 PARASOL image (d) chlorophyll concentration in mg m−3 as derived by POLAC applied to the level 1 PARASOL image. The chlorophyll concentration is calculated using the SeaWiFS OC4v4 (OC2v2 for PARASOL data) algorithm based on the retrieved water-leaving radiances.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized water-leaving radiances nLw at 490 nm (in mW cm−2 μm−1 sr−1) retrieved by the modified versions of POLAC using the level 1 PARASOL image acquired on May 5th 2006 over Mediterranean Sea (a) POLACNOPOL (b) POLACNOVIS and (c) the original version of POLAC, (d) level 2 SeaWiFS image of nLw at 490 nm over the same area.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Microphysical properties of the fine and coarse modes of the spherical aerosol models used to construct the LUT*

Equations (17)

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μ dS(τ,μ,ϕ) dτ =S(τ,μ,ϕ) ω(τ) 4π Ω P( μ,ϕ, μ , ϕ )S(τ,μ,ϕ)d μ d ϕ ,
F(Θ)=( F 11 (Θ) F 12 (Θ) 0 0 F 12 (Θ) F 22 (Θ) 0 0 0 0 F 33 (Θ) F 34 (Θ) 0 0 F 34 (Θ) F 44 (Θ) ),
d N i (r)= 1 σ i 2π exp[ 1 2 ( logrlog r ¯ i σ i ) 2 ]dlogr,
J( Ψ,x )= i N cri p i ( Ψ ) ( S i mes ( Ψ ) S i sim ( Ψ,x ) ) 2 σ i 2 ( Ψ )
p i = 1 N LUT 1 j=1 N LUT ( S i sim ( x j ) S i sim ) 2
J * ( x )= k N dir J( Ψ k ,x )
J( τ a ) or J * ( τ a )=A+B τ a +C τ a 2 .
APD= 1 N i=1 N | y i x i | x i
AD= 1 N i=1 N | y i x i |
Δ τ a = i N dir ( τ a,dir ( i ) τ a ) 2 N dir 1 .
S( λ,Ψ )=γ S f ( τ a ( λ ),Ψ )+( 1γ ) S c ( τ a ( λ ),Ψ )
τ a f ( λ )=γ τ a ( λ ), τ a c ( λ )=( 1γ ) τ a ( λ )
J * ( γ )=A+Bγ+C γ 2
ρ w ( 0 )= π L u0 ( 0 ) /E d ( 0 )
J * =A+B ρ w ( 0 )+C ( ρ w ( 0 ) ) 2 .
α ang (λ, λ ref )=ln( τ a ( λ ref ) τ a (λ) )* [ ln( λ λ ref ) ] 1 ,
S i synth ( Ψ,λ )=( 1+ B Ψ B λ ) S sim ( Ψ,λ )

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