Abstract

The influence of the active gain medium on the spectral amplitude and phase of amplified, femtosecond pulses in a laser system is studied. Results from a case study of a 15-petawatt laser based on Nd-doped mixed glasses show that gain-induced atomic phase shifts will distort the pulses, reducing their peak power. It is also shown that a phase compensation solution is possible and the corresponding coefficients are calculated.

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References

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  1. G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 160–162 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and A. Varanavicius, “Broadband Nd:glass regenerative amplifier with combined active medium,” Opt. Commun. 84(5-6), 343–345 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Stuart, J. Bonlie, J. Britten, J. Caird, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, M. Eckart, A. Erlandson, W. Molander, A. Ng, P. Patel, and D. Price, “The Titan Laser at LLNL,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JTuG3.
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Casperson and A. Yariv, “Pulse Propagation in a High-Gain Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(6), 293–295 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Brinkmann, J. Hayden, M. Letz, S. Reichel, C. Click, W. Mannstadt, B. Schreder, S. Wolff, S. Ritter, M. J. Davis, T. E. Bauer, H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, S.-T. Wu, K. Bonrad, E. Krätzig, K. Buse, and R. A. Paquin, “Optical Materials and Their Properties,” in Springer handbook of lasers and optics, F. Trager ed. (Springer 2007), page 299.

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, F. O. Salin, C. Le Blanc, and S. Kane, “Use of mismatched grating pairs in chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Appl. Opt. 37(9), 1638–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Le Blanc, P. Curley, and F. Salin, “Gain-narrowing and gain-shifting of ultra-short pulses in Ti: sapphire amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 131(4-6), 391–398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and A. Varanavicius, “Broadband Nd:glass regenerative amplifier with combined active medium,” Opt. Commun. 84(5-6), 343–345 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. Hall, W. Hagen, and M. Weber, “Modeling broad-band and multiple-frequency energy extraction from glass laser amplifiers,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 22(6), 793–796 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1971 (1)

L. Casperson and A. Yariv, “Pulse Propagation in a High-Gain Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(6), 293–295 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

Blakeney, J.

Borger, T.

Britten, J. A.

Brown, C.

Bulanov, S.

G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J.

Casperson, L.

L. Casperson and A. Yariv, “Pulse Propagation in a High-Gain Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(6), 293–295 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cross, R.

Curley, P.

C. Le Blanc, P. Curley, and F. Salin, “Gain-narrowing and gain-shifting of ultra-short pulses in Ti: sapphire amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 131(4-6), 391–398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and A. Varanavicius, “Broadband Nd:glass regenerative amplifier with combined active medium,” Opt. Commun. 84(5-6), 343–345 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

Douglas, S.

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, G.

Ebbers, C.

Erlandson, A.

Escamilla, R.

Faure, J.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaul, E. W.

Golick, B.

Gordon, C. L.

Hagen, W.

D. Hall, W. Hagen, and M. Weber, “Modeling broad-band and multiple-frequency energy extraction from glass laser amplifiers,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 22(6), 793–796 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D.

D. Hall, W. Hagen, and M. Weber, “Modeling broad-band and multiple-frequency energy extraction from glass laser amplifiers,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 22(6), 793–796 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, D.

Henderson, W.

Herman, S.

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jochmann, A.

Jonusauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kane, S.

Kapteyn, H. C.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kartz, M.

Le Blanc, C.

J. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, F. O. Salin, C. Le Blanc, and S. Kane, “Use of mismatched grating pairs in chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Appl. Opt. 37(9), 1638–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Le Blanc, P. Curley, and F. Salin, “Gain-narrowing and gain-shifting of ultra-short pulses in Ti: sapphire amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 131(4-6), 391–398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemoff, B. E.

Martinez, M.

Miller, J.

Mourou, G.

G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

Nantel, M.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheim, U. P.

Pennington, D.

Perry, M. D.

Piskarskas, A.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and A. Varanavicius, “Broadband Nd:glass regenerative amplifier with combined active medium,” Opt. Commun. 84(5-6), 343–345 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Podenas, D.

R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and A. Varanavicius, “Broadband Nd:glass regenerative amplifier with combined active medium,” Opt. Commun. 84(5-6), 343–345 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Powell, H. T.

Ringuette, M.

Salin, F.

C. Le Blanc, P. Curley, and F. Salin, “Gain-narrowing and gain-shifting of ultra-short pulses in Ti: sapphire amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 131(4-6), 391–398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F. O.

Squier, J.

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

Tajima, T.

G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tietbohl, G.

Varanavicius, A.

R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and A. Varanavicius, “Broadband Nd:glass regenerative amplifier with combined active medium,” Opt. Commun. 84(5-6), 343–345 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vergino, M.

Watanabe, S.

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

D. Hall, W. Hagen, and M. Weber, “Modeling broad-band and multiple-frequency energy extraction from glass laser amplifiers,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 22(6), 793–796 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

Yariv, A.

L. Casperson and A. Yariv, “Pulse Propagation in a High-Gain Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(6), 293–295 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Hall, W. Hagen, and M. Weber, “Modeling broad-band and multiple-frequency energy extraction from glass laser amplifiers,” IEEE Quantum Electron. 22(6), 793–796 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (5)

J. Itatani, J. Faure, M. Nantel, G. Mourou, and S. Watanabe, “Suppression of the amplified spontaneous emission in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection,” Opt. Commun. 148(1-3), 70–74 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56(3), 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Le Blanc, P. Curley, and F. Salin, “Gain-narrowing and gain-shifting of ultra-short pulses in Ti: sapphire amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 131(4-6), 391–398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, “Powerful femtosecond pulse generation by chirped and stretched pulse parametric amplification in BBO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 88(4-6), 437–440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Danielius, A. Piskarskas, D. Podenas, and A. Varanavicius, “Broadband Nd:glass regenerative amplifier with combined active medium,” Opt. Commun. 84(5-6), 343–345 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Casperson and A. Yariv, “Pulse Propagation in a High-Gain Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(6), 293–295 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High power ultrafast lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69(3), 1207–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. Stuart, J. Bonlie, J. Britten, J. Caird, R. Cross, C. Ebbers, M. Eckart, A. Erlandson, W. Molander, A. Ng, P. Patel, and D. Price, “The Titan Laser at LLNL,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper JTuG3.

S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd:doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Rep. M-095, 2nd revision, 1981.

M. Brinkmann, J. Hayden, M. Letz, S. Reichel, C. Click, W. Mannstadt, B. Schreder, S. Wolff, S. Ritter, M. J. Davis, T. E. Bauer, H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, S.-T. Wu, K. Bonrad, E. Krätzig, K. Buse, and R. A. Paquin, “Optical Materials and Their Properties,” in Springer handbook of lasers and optics, F. Trager ed. (Springer 2007), page 299.

E. A. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986) p. 468.

F. Giambruno, C. Radier, and G. Chériaux, “Gain narrowing and spectral shifting control in Apollon-10P, petawatt hybrid CPA laser system,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2009 Conference Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CF_P23.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the index of refraction versus wavelength in a normal passive medium, dotted black line, and an active, inverted laser medium (gain), solid black line. The spectra of a long pulse, red line, and a short pulse, dashed blue line, are shown for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Main components of the 15-PW mixed-glass laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized spectra of the laser pulse versus wavelength: (i) initial 60 fs pulse, (f1) after the first filter, (p) after the phosphate amplifier, (f2) after the 2nd filter, and (s) after the silicate amplifier, also assumed to be the final, compressed pulse spectrum with a FWHM of 24 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The accumulated phase shifts experienced by the pulse in each of the glass amplifiers and their (total) sum (left axis). For comparison, the compressed spectrum from Fig. 3 is also shown in thick solid line (right axis).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FFT-reconstructed pulse profiles: (i) initial 60-fs pulse with no distortions, (ip) initial spectrum and APS phase, (a) amplified spectrum and APS, (ac) amplified spectrum with APS and phase compensation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The B-integral values accumulated by the stretched pulse in the phosphate and silicate amplifiers, and their sum (total), (a). Output energy and power versus the pulse duration for 300 test shots with 1% random fluctuation in the small signal gain of all the glass amplifiers, (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Output parameters of two 1 PW test laser systems.

Equations (1)

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Δϕ(ω)= ω ω p Δ ω p ln( G p (ω))+ ω ω s Δ ω s ln( G s (ω)),

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