Abstract

In array-type optical devices integrated on a single chip with high density, the crosstalk between adjacent devices causes main reason of limited transmission capacity in cascaded optical communication systems. In order to reduce the crosstalk in an arrayed variable optical attenuator, we incorporated a self-assembled monolayer of a microsphere array in the device. The microsphere array introduces a large index contrast in the polymer waveguide, thereby causing strong diffraction of the planar guided modes toward the surface normal directions. Due to the microsphere diffraction, the inter-channel crosstalk between the adjacent channels in a variable optical attenuator array decreases to less than −50 dB.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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  14. Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, T. Yoshimatsu, H. Takara, T. Komukai, Y. Hashizume, H. Kubota, H. Masuda, M. Jinno, and A. Takada, “Influence of intrachannel crosstalk with frequency dependence on signal degradation in optical switch network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Ultralow power consumption silica-based PLC-VOA/switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(14), 2235–2244 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baek, Y.-S.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C. L.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fujisawa, K.

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-G.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-P.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.-T.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, Y.

Hwang, W.-Y.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Ishigure, T.

Ishii, H.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Jang, J.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

Kikuchi, N.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-M.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koh, K. H.

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

Koide, Y.

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

Kubota, H.

Lee, C.

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-J.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Nakane, M.

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Nikolíc, R. J.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y.-O.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-H.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-H.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfennigbauer, M.

Reinhardt, C. E.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.-U.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

Takara, H.

Tsuchizawa, T.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzuki, K.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uno, H.

Wang, T. F.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Watanabe, T.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Won, Y.-H.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yasaka, H.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, T.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, T.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.

Y. Koide, K. Fujisawa, and M. Nakane, “Preparation of non-contact ordered array of polystyrene colloidal particles by using a metallic thin film of fused hemispheres,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 330(2-3), 108–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J.

J.-U. Shin, Y.-T. Han, S.-P. Han, S.-H. Park, Y.-S. Baek, Y.-O. Noh, and K.-H. Park, “Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using a polymer integrated photonic lightwave circuit,” ETRI J. 31(6), 770–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and Y.-S. Baek, “Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS integrated with modified radiation-type attenuators,” ETRI J. 30(5), 744–746 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Tsuzuki, Y. Shibata, N. Kikuchi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yasui, H. Ishii, and H. Yasaka, “Full C-cand tunable DFB laser array copackaged with InP Mach–Zehnder modulator for DWDM optical communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 521–527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y.-T. Han, J.-U. Shin, S.-H. Park, S.-P. Han, Y.-S. Baek, C.-H. Lee, Y.-O. Noh, H.-J. Lee, and H.-H. Park, “Fabrication of 10-channel polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1556–1558 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

K. H. Koh, C. Lee, and T. Kobayashi, “A piezoelectric-driven three-dimensional MEMS VOA using attenuation mechanism with combination of rotational and translational effects,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19(6), 1370–1379 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(4), 04DG20 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolíc, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Y.-O. Noh, C.-H. Lee, J.-M. Kim, W.-Y. Hwang, Y.-H. Won, H.-J. Lee, S.-G. Han, and M.-C. Oh, “Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability,” Opt. Commun. 242(4-6), 533–540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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