Abstract

We designed at the register-transfer-level digital signal processing (DSP) circuits for 21.8 Gb/s and 43.7 Gb/s QPSK- and 16-QAM-encoded optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transceivers, and carried out synthesis and simulations assessing performance, power consumption and chip area. The aim of the study is to determine the suitability of OFDM technology for low-cost optical interconnects. Power calculations based on synthesis for a 65nm standard-cell library showed that the DSP components of the transceiver (FFTs, equalisation, (de)mapping and clipping/scaling circuits) consume 18.2 mW/Gb/s and 12.8 mW/Gb/s in the case of QPSK and 16-QAM respectively.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. Synopsys Design Compiler, http://www.synopsys.com/Tools/Implementation/RTLSynthesis/Pages/DCUltra.aspx
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. C. Van Loan, Computational Frameworks for the Fast Fourier Transform, SIAM (1992)
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2010

2009

2008

Benlachtar, Y.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouziane, R.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breyer, F.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, D. Cardenas, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Real-time gigabit DMT transmission over plastic optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 45(25), 1342–1343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, D.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, D. Cardenas, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Real-time gigabit DMT transmission over plastic optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 45(25), 1342–1343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cartolano, A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Giacoumidis, E.

Giddings, R. P.

Glick, M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoe, J. C.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugues-Salas, E.

Jin, X. Q.

Kaneda, N.

Kee, H. H.

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, H. H. Kee, X. L. Yang, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time implementation of optical OFDM transmitters and receivers for practical end-to-end optical transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 45(15), 800–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonen, A. M. J.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, D. Cardenas, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Real-time gigabit DMT transmission over plastic optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 45(25), 1342–1343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koutsoyannis, R.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. C. J.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, D. Cardenas, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Real-time gigabit DMT transmission over plastic optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 45(25), 1342–1343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Ma, Y.

Milder, P.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Püschel, M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randel, S.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, D. Cardenas, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Real-time gigabit DMT transmission over plastic optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 45(25), 1342–1343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rangaraj, D.

Shieh, W.

Tang, J. M.

Watts, P. M.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17658–17668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, J. L.

Yang, Q.

Yang, X. L.

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, H. H. Kee, X. L. Yang, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time implementation of optical OFDM transmitters and receivers for practical end-to-end optical transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 45(15), 800–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Electron. Lett.

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, H. H. Kee, X. L. Yang, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time implementation of optical OFDM transmitters and receivers for practical end-to-end optical transmission systems,” Electron. Lett. 45(15), 800–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, D. Cardenas, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Real-time gigabit DMT transmission over plastic optical fibre,” Electron. Lett. 45(25), 1342–1343 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Real-Time Digital Signal Processing for the Generation of Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division-Multiplexed Signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1235–1244 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

Opt. Express

Other

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “21.4 GS/s real-time DSP-based optical OFDM signal generation and transmission over 1600km of uncompensated fibre,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Vienna, 2009), PD paper 2.4.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in Proc. ICECE’06, Bangladesh, Dec. 2006, pp. 408–411.

P. Milder, F. Franchetti, J. C. Hoe, and M. Püschel, “Formal datapath representation and manipulation for implementing DSP transforms,” in Proc. ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC), pp. 385–390, 8–13 June 2008.

C. Van Loan, Computational Frameworks for the Fast Fourier Transform, SIAM (1992)

I. Dedic, “56Gs/s ADC: Enabling 100GbE,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, paper OThT6.

P. Milder, R. Bouziane, R. Koutsoyannis, C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, M. Glick, and J. C. Hoe, “Design and Simulation of 25 Gb/s Optical OFDM Transceiver ASICs”, to be presented at European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), Geneva, 18 – 22 September 2011.

B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “100Gbit/s transmission using single-band direct-detection optical OFDM”, in Proc. Optical Fiber Comm.(OFC), paper PDPC3 (2009).

R. S. Tucker, “The role of optics and electronics in high capacity routers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24–12, 4655–4673 (2006).

R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, Y. Benlachtar, C. R. Berger, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, and R. I. Killey, “Design Studies for an ASIC Implementation of an Optical OFDM Transceiver”, in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), Torino, 19 - 23 September 2010, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Synopsys Design Compiler, http://www.synopsys.com/Tools/Implementation/RTLSynthesis/Pages/DCUltra.aspx

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, A. Klekamp, M. Bernhard, and D. Efinger, “Realization of a real-time 12.1 Gb/s optical OFDM transmitter and its application in a 109 Gb/s transmission system with coherent reception,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Vienna, 2009), PD paper 2.1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a): Transmitter DSP design. (b): Receiver DSP design. (CP – cyclic prefix, P/S – parallel-to-serial, S/P – serial-to-parallel,) The dark grey boxes are included in synthesized ASIC designs, while the light grey boxes are used in simulation only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical interconnect design

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Received signal error vector magnitudes (EVM) for a range of FFT precisions (a) and average EVM versus FFT precision (b) for QPSK.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Received signal EVM versus transmitter IFFT precision (a) and receiver FFT precision (b) for 16-QAM

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power (y-axis) and area (x-axis) for each synthesized transmitter and receiver in the QPSK system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power (y-axis) and area (x-axis) for each synthesized transmitter and receiver in the 16-QAM system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical transmission simulation results. Inset: Received signal constellations for all 50 sub-channels:(a) QPSK (b) 16-QAM.

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