Abstract

A scaling law which was used to classify photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) is now extended to photoelectron kinetic energy spectra. Both a theoretical proof and an independent verification are presented. Considering PADs are of photoelectron momentum spectra, this extension really extends the scaling law to the entire energy-momentum spectra. The scaling law for photoelectron energy-momentum spectra applies to both directly ionized and rescattered photoelectrons. Re-scaling experimental input parameters without loosing the physical essence with this scaling law may ease the experimental conditions and reduce the material and the energy consumptions in the experiments.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation with independently controlled ionization and ponderomotive energy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011807 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786–1813 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).
  9. X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 8708–8716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zhang, L. Bai, S. Gong, and Z. Xu, “A scaling law of photoionization in few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 15, 7261–7268 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Retrieving Angular Distributions of high-order harmonic generation from a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013904 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997–5005 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Yan Wu, Huiliang Ye, Jingtao Zhang, and D.-S. Guo are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory of rescattering effect of photoelectrons in intense laser fields.”
  21. X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 96, 863–870 (2008).
  22. J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Bauer and P. Koval, “QPROP: A Schrodinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 174, 396–421 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. G. Muller, “An efficient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the velocity gauge,” Laser Phys. 9, 138–148 (1999).
  25. K. J. Schafer and K.C. Kulander, “Energy analysis of time-dependent wave functions: Application to above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5794–5797 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. G. Muller and F. C. Kooiman, “Bunching and focusing of tunneling wave packets in enhancement of high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1207–1210 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Retrieving Angular Distributions of high-order harmonic generation from a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation with independently controlled ionization and ponderomotive energy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 96, 863–870 (2008).

2007 (3)

J. Zhang, L. Bai, S. Gong, and Z. Xu, “A scaling law of photoionization in few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 15, 7261–7268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “QPROP: A Schrodinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 174, 396–421 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. G. Muller, “An efficient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the velocity gauge,” Laser Phys. 9, 138–148 (1999).

1998 (1)

H. G. Muller and F. C. Kooiman, “Bunching and focusing of tunneling wave packets in enhancement of high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1207–1210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. J. Schafer and K.C. Kulander, “Energy analysis of time-dependent wave functions: Application to above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5794–5797 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997–5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786–1813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Åberg, T.

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997–5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, L.

Bandulet, H.-C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “QPROP: A Schrodinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 174, 396–421 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Bryan, W. A.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.B.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crasemann, B.

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997–5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Nalda, R.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, P.

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giguere, M.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, J.

Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Gong, S.

Guo, D.-S.

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 96, 863–870 (2008).

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997–5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan Wu, Huiliang Ye, Jingtao Zhang, and D.-S. Guo are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory of rescattering effect of photoelectrons in intense laser fields.”

Guo, Y.

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 96, 863–870 (2008).

Ishikawa, K. L.

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation with independently controlled ionization and ponderomotive energy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kajumba, N.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J-C.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooiman, F. C.

H. G. Muller and F. C. Kooiman, “Bunching and focusing of tunneling wave packets in enhancement of high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1207–1210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koval, P.

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “QPROP: A Schrodinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 174, 396–421 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K.C.

K. J. Schafer and K.C. Kulander, “Energy analysis of time-dependent wave functions: Application to above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5794–5797 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, A. T.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legare, F.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. D.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micheau, S.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation with independently controlled ionization and ponderomotive energy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, G.

K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Retrieving Angular Distributions of high-order harmonic generation from a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, K.

K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Retrieving Angular Distributions of high-order harmonic generation from a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morishita, T.

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Muller, “An efficient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the velocity gauge,” Laser Phys. 9, 138–148 (1999).

H. G. Muller and F. C. Kooiman, “Bunching and focusing of tunneling wave packets in enhancement of high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1207–1210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okunishi, M.

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Hernández, J. A.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Plaja, L.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prumper, G.

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos, J.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenberger, J.

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiss, H. R.

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786–1813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. S.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roso, L.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salieres, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

K. J. Schafer and K.C. Kulander, “Energy analysis of time-dependent wave functions: Application to above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5794–5797 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. E.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, K.

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiner, A. D.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation with independently controlled ionization and ponderomotive energy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, R.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trallero-Herrero, C.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

TriTriBaker, S.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turcu, I. C. E.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. G.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. X.

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 96, 863–870 (2008).

Watanabe, S.

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worner, H. J.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Yan

Yan Wu, Huiliang Ye, Jingtao Zhang, and D.-S. Guo are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory of rescattering effect of photoelectrons in intense laser fields.”

Xu, Z.

J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, L. Bai, S. Gong, and Z. Xu, “A scaling law of photoionization in few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 15, 7261–7268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 8708–8716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Z.-C.

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Huiliang

Yan Wu, Huiliang Ye, Jingtao Zhang, and D.-S. Guo are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory of rescattering effect of photoelectrons in intense laser fields.”

Yoshii, K.

K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Retrieving Angular Distributions of high-order harmonic generation from a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, L. Bai, S. Gong, and Z. Xu, “A scaling law of photoionization in few-cycle regime,” Opt. Express 15, 7261–7268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Gong, and Z. Xu, “Verification of a scaling law in few-cycle laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13, 8708–8716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Jingtao

Yan Wu, Huiliang Ye, Jingtao Zhang, and D.-S. Guo are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory of rescattering effect of photoelectrons in intense laser fields.”

Zhang, W.

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, Z.

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

X. Hu, H. X. Wang, and D.-S. Guo, “Phased bessel functions,” Can. J. Phys. 96, 863–870 (2008).

Comp. Phys. Comm. (1)

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “QPROP: A Schrodinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys. Comm. 174, 396–421 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

J. Zhang, W. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, D.-S. Guo, and R. R. Freeman, “The calculation of photoelectron angular distributions with jet-like structure from scattering theory,” J. Phys. B 35, 4809–4818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (2)

H. G. Muller, “An efficient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the velocity gauge,” Laser Phys. 9, 138–148 (1999).

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

J. Chen, B. Zeng, X. Liu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Wavelength scaling of high-order harmonic yield from an optically prepared excited state atom,” N. J. Phys. 11, 113021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Worner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J-C. Kieffer, F. Legare, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P.B. Corkum, and D.M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (London) 432, 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786–1813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Guo, J. Zhang, Z. Xu, X. Li, P. Fu, and R. R. Freeman, “Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 043404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Ishikawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation with independently controlled ionization and ponderomotive energy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 011807 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Schafer and K.C. Kulander, “Energy analysis of time-dependent wave functions: Application to above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5794–5797 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, P. Fu, Z.-C. Yan, J. Gong, and B. Wang, “Imaging the geometrical structure of the H2+ molecular ion by high-order above-threshold ionization in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 063408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, Y. Guo, B. Zhang, Z. Zhao, Z.-C. Yan, and P. Fu, “Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Guo, T. Åberg, and B. Crasemann, “Scattering theory of multiphoton ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 4997–5005 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

H. G. Muller and F. C. Kooiman, “Bunching and focusing of tunneling wave packets in enhancement of high-order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1207–1210 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H.-C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Legare, M. Giguere, J-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Micheau, Z. Chen, A. T. Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, and C. D. Lin, “Accurate retrieval of target structures and laser parameters of few-cycle pulses from photoelectron momentum spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshii, G. Miyaji, and K. Miyazaki, “Retrieving Angular Distributions of high-order harmonic generation from a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 013904 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okunishi, T. Morishita, G. Prumper, K. Shimada, C. D. Lin, S. Watanabe, and K. Ueda, “Experimental retrieval of target structure information from laser-induced rescattered photoelectron momentum distributions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Torres, N. Kajumba, J. G. Underwood, J. S. Robinson, S. TriTriBaker, J. W. G. Tisch, R. de Nalda, W. A. Bryan, R. Velotta, C. Altucci, I. C. E. Turcu, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing orbital structure of polyatomic molecules by high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 203007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307–1314 (1965).

Other (1)

Yan Wu, Huiliang Ye, Jingtao Zhang, and D.-S. Guo are preparing a manuscript to be called “Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory of rescattering effect of photoelectrons in intense laser fields.”

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polar plots of the PADs of the 23rd ATI peaks. (a) serves as a reference which is for hydrogen atoms irradiated by laser field of intensity 1.04 × 1014 W/cm2 and of wavelength 800 nm. (b), (c) and (d) are from a model atoms with binding energy 27.20 eV, irradiated by laser field of wavelength 400 nm and of intensity 4.16, 8.32, and 16.64 × 1014 W/cm2, respectively. The similarity between the PADs in (a) and (c) verifies the scaling law. We set λ = 0.1 and change it as K times in the scaling transformation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) The calculated energy spectra for different scaling ratios. The original one is for the hydrogen atoms irradiated by laser field of wavelength 800 nm and intensity 1.04 × 1014 W/cm2. The rest two spectra are these calculated according to the scaling law with different scaling ratios. The value of λ is chosen as 0.1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The kinetic energy spectra of photoelectrons calculated by the TDSE method: (a) is for argon atoms in laser field of wavelength 800nm and intensity 6.80 × 1013 W/cm2; (b)–(d) are calculated spectra for a model atom with binding energy 31.52 eV irradiated by laser field of wavelength 400 nm and intensity 2.72 × 1014 W/cm2 (b); 5.44 × 1014 W/cm2 (c); 1.09 × 1015 W/cm2 (d). For convenience of comparison, the abscissa is plotted in the unit of ω.

Equations (10)

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dW d Ω p f = ( 2 m e 3 ω 5 ) 1 / 2 ( 2 π ) 2 q ( q ɛ b ) 1 / 2 | T fi d + T fi r | 2 ,
T fi d = ( u p j i ) 𝒳 j i ( ζ f , η ) * 𝒳 j f ( ζ f , η ) Φ i ( | P f q k | ) ,
T fi r i π P , n = f P , n = P , n ϕ f , n f | Ψ P , n × Ψ P , n | U | Ψ P , n Ψ P , n | V | Φ i , n i ,
T fi r = i m e 4 π 5 / 2 j i 𝒳 j f ( ζ f , η ) ( u p j i ) | P | Φ i ( | P | ) × d Ω P 𝒳 q j i + j f ( ζ ζ f ) 𝒳 j i ( ζ , η ) * U ( P f P q k )
X n ( z ) J n ( | z | ) e in arg ( z ) , 𝒳 j ( z , z ) m = X j 2 m ( z ) X m ( z ) ,
ζ f = ζ 0 P f ɛ , ζ = ζ 0 P ɛ , η = u p ɛ ɛ / 2 ,
U ( r ) = Z e 2 4 π r exp ( λ r ) ,
U ( P f P ) = Z e 2 | P f P | 2 + λ 2 .
Φ i | P f | = 8 ( π β 5 ) 1 / 2 ( β 2 + | P f | 2 ) 2 ,
W γ ( ) = γ 2 n ( H 0 ) 2 n + γ 2 n ,

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