Abstract

Clouds represent a critical factor in regulating the Earth's atmosphere and its energy balance. Satellite instruments can measure the energy balance and global atmospheric properties only through an accurate knowledge of the vertical profile of cloudiness, which is as yet one of the key shortages in atmospheric science. The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on-board the ENVISAT satellite, designed to infer the amount of atmospheric trace-gases, demonstrated also sensitivity to the radiation emitted from clouds. In order to model the effect of the geometrical extent of a cloud on MIPAS measurements, we developed a retrieval model capable to simulate cloud effects on broad spectral intervals accounting for the two-dimensional (2-D) variability of the atmosphere in the satellite orbit plane. The 2-D analysis revealed a sensitivity of MIPAS spectra to both the vertical and horizontal extents and the position of clouds along the instrument line of sight. One-dimensional models were found to underestimate Cloud Top Height (CTH) by approximating clouds as an infinite horizontal layer with a finite vertical extents. With the 2-D approach, we showed it is possible, for optically thin Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), to retrieve both CTH and horizontal dimension by analyzing simultaneously all the limb observations that come across the cloud with their field of view. For a selected case study we found a very good agreement for both PSC CTH and horizontal extents retrieved from MIPAS measurements and those retrieved from coincident CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation) measurements.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, and L. W. Thomason, “CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second-generation detection algorithm and composition discrimination,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(19), 7577–7589 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. A. Hurley, A. Dudhia, and D. Grainger, “Retrieval of macrophysical cloud parameters from MIPAS: algorithm description,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 4(4), 683–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER infrared limb-sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 339–354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Höpfner, M. C. Pitts, and L. R. Poole, “Comparison between CALIPSO and MIPAS observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H05 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, and L. W. Thomason, “CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second-generation detection algorithm and composition discrimination,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(19), 7577–7589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Mendrok, F. Schreier, and M. Höpfner, “Estimating cirrus cloud properties from MIPAS data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(8), L08807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, and D. M. Winker, “Characterization of polar stratospheric clouds with space-borne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(19), 5207–5228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Livesey, W. Van Snyder, W. G. Read, and P. A. Wagner, “Retrieval algorithms for the EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(5), 1144–1155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Flaud, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, A. Perrin, and M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS database: validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5037–5048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Höpfner and C. Emde, “Comparison of single and multiple scattering approaches for the simulation of limb–emission observations in the mid–IR,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 275–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. B. L. Ewen, R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, and A. J. Baran, “Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(1), 45–74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Steck, M. Höpfner, T. von Clarmann, and U. Grabowski, “Tomographic retrieval of atmospheric parameters from infrared limb emission observations,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3291–3301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Heidinger and M. J. Pavolonis, “Global daytime distribution of overlapping cirrus cloud from NOAA’s advanced very high resolution radiometer,” J. Clim. 18(22), 4772–4784 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, “Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43(5), 762–778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, and M. P. Barkley, “Colour indices for the detection and differentiation of cloud types in infrared limb emission spectra,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1041–1047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, “Study on the impact of polar stratospheric clouds on high resolution mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 83(1), 93–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. Spang and J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(16), 1875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1999

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. S. Skeens, “A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985–1990),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29430 (1996).

1994

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, and J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H 2 O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. K. Gupta, W. L. Darnell, and A. C. Wilber, “A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from satellite data: Recent improvements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31(12), 1361–1367 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, E.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, P. L.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baran, A. J.

G. B. L. Ewen, R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, and A. J. Baran, “Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(1), 45–74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barkley, M. P.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, and M. P. Barkley, “Colour indices for the detection and differentiation of cloud types in infrared limb emission spectra,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1041–1047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barthol, P.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baumgarten, G.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, C.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, U.

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blom, C.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brizzi, G.

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Flaud, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, A. Perrin, and M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS database: validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5037–5048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, A.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Flaud, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, A. Perrin, and M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS database: validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5037–5048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castelli, E.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, S.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Darnell, W. L.

S. K. Gupta, W. L. Darnell, and A. C. Wilber, “A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from satellite data: Recent improvements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31(12), 1361–1367 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Delbouille, L.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deutschmann, T.

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Di Donfrancesco, G.

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B. M.

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudhia, A.

J. A. Hurley, A. Dudhia, and D. Grainger, “Retrieval of macrophysical cloud parameters from MIPAS: algorithm description,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 4(4), 683–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ehhalt, D.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eidmann, G.

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Emde, C.

M. Höpfner and C. Emde, “Comparison of single and multiple scattering approaches for the simulation of limb–emission observations in the mid–IR,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 275–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ewen, G. B. L.

G. B. L. Ewen, R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, and A. J. Baran, “Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(1), 45–74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fishbein, E. F.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

J.-M. Flaud, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, A. Perrin, and M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS database: validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5037–5048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedl-Vallon, F.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, M. D.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Funke, B.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gessner, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glatthor, N.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, U.

Grainger, D.

J. A. Hurley, A. Dudhia, and D. Grainger, “Retrieval of macrophysical cloud parameters from MIPAS: algorithm description,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 4(4), 683–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grainger, R. G.

G. B. L. Ewen, R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, and A. J. Baran, “Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(1), 45–74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grossmann, K. U.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S. K.

S. K. Gupta, W. L. Darnell, and A. C. Wilber, “A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from satellite data: Recent improvements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31(12), 1361–1367 (1992).
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Heidinger, A. K.

A. K. Heidinger and M. J. Pavolonis, “Global daytime distribution of overlapping cirrus cloud from NOAA’s advanced very high resolution radiometer,” J. Clim. 18(22), 4772–4784 (2005).
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M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, “Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43(5), 762–778 (2004).
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Hoffmann, L.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER infrared limb-sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 339–354 (2010).
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Höpfner, M.

M. Höpfner, M. C. Pitts, and L. R. Poole, “Comparison between CALIPSO and MIPAS observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H05 (2009).
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J. Mendrok, F. Schreier, and M. Höpfner, “Estimating cirrus cloud properties from MIPAS data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(8), L08807 (2007).
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P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner and C. Emde, “Comparison of single and multiple scattering approaches for the simulation of limb–emission observations in the mid–IR,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 275–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Steck, M. Höpfner, T. von Clarmann, and U. Grabowski, “Tomographic retrieval of atmospheric parameters from infrared limb emission observations,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3291–3301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Höpfner, “Study on the impact of polar stratospheric clouds on high resolution mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 83(1), 93–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J. A.

J. A. Hurley, A. Dudhia, and D. Grainger, “Retrieval of macrophysical cloud parameters from MIPAS: algorithm description,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 4(4), 683–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, J.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, and J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H 2 O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, M.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER infrared limb-sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 339–354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

P. H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. S. Skeens, “A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985–1990),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29430 (1996).

Kiefer, M.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleinert, A.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knieling, P.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, B. G.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, and J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H 2 O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Konopka, P.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, L. J.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, C.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kühl, S.

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumer, J. B.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, W. A.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, A.

G. B. L. Ewen, R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, and A. J. Baran, “Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(1), 45–74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langen, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. C.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lengel, A.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linden, A.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Livesey, N. J.

N. J. Livesey, W. Van Snyder, W. G. Read, and P. A. Wagner, “Retrieval algorithms for the EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(5), 1144–1155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Puertas, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B. P.

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Magnani, L.

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Massoli, P.

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maucher, G.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

P. H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. S. Skeens, “A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985–1990),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29430 (1996).

Mendrok, J.

J. Mendrok, F. Schreier, and M. Höpfner, “Estimating cirrus cloud properties from MIPAS data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(8), L08807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mergenthaler, J. L.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrook, A. M.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, and J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H 2 O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Milz, M.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Minnis, P.

P. H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. S. Skeens, “A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985–1990),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29430 (1996).

Mosner, P.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nett, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nordmeyer, H.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Offermann, D.

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Papandrea, E.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pavolonis, M. J.

A. K. Heidinger and M. J. Pavolonis, “Global daytime distribution of overlapping cirrus cloud from NOAA’s advanced very high resolution radiometer,” J. Clim. 18(22), 4772–4784 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, “Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43(5), 762–778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Payne, V.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

J.-M. Flaud, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, A. Perrin, and M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS database: validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5037–5048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perron, G.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, L.

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piccolo, C.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, M. C.

M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, and L. W. Thomason, “CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second-generation detection algorithm and composition discrimination,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(19), 7577–7589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, M. C. Pitts, and L. R. Poole, “Comparison between CALIPSO and MIPAS observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H05 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, and D. M. Winker, “Characterization of polar stratospheric clouds with space-borne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(19), 5207–5228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

M. Höpfner, M. C. Pitts, and L. R. Poole, “Comparison between CALIPSO and MIPAS observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H05 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, and L. W. Thomason, “CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second-generation detection algorithm and composition discrimination,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(19), 7577–7589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, and D. M. Winker, “Characterization of polar stratospheric clouds with space-borne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(19), 5207–5228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Preusse, P.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER infrared limb-sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 339–354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pukite, J.

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raspollini, P.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Read, W. G.

N. J. Livesey, W. Van Snyder, W. G. Read, and P. A. Wagner, “Retrieval algorithms for the EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(5), 1144–1155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, and M. P. Barkley, “Colour indices for the detection and differentiation of cloud types in infrared limb emission spectra,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1041–1047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang and J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(16), 1875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ridolfi, M.

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Flaud, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, A. Perrin, and M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS database: validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5037–5048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riese, M.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER infrared limb-sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 339–354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roche, A. E.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, F.

J. Mendrok, F. Schreier, and M. Höpfner, “Estimating cirrus cloud properties from MIPAS data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(8), L08807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skeens, K. S.

P. H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. S. Skeens, “A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985–1990),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29430 (1996).

Snels, M.

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spang, R.

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, and M. P. Barkley, “Colour indices for the detection and differentiation of cloud types in infrared limb emission spectra,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1041–1047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang and J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(16), 1875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steck, T.

Stiller, G.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, and L. W. Thomason, “CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second-generation detection algorithm and composition discrimination,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(19), 7577–7589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, and D. M. Winker, “Characterization of polar stratospheric clouds with space-borne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(19), 5207–5228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tolbert, M. A.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, and J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H 2 O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, and J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H 2 O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trant, R.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ungermann, J.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER infrared limb-sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 339–354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Snyder, W.

N. J. Livesey, W. Van Snyder, W. G. Read, and P. A. Wagner, “Retrieval algorithms for the EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(5), 1144–1155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Steck, M. Höpfner, T. von Clarmann, and U. Grabowski, “Tomographic retrieval of atmospheric parameters from infrared limb emission observations,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3291–3301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, P. A.

N. J. Livesey, W. Van Snyder, W. G. Read, and P. A. Wagner, “Retrieval algorithms for the EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(5), 1144–1155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. H.

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. S. Skeens, “A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985–1990),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29430 (1996).

Waters, J. W.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, G.

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilber, A. C.

S. K. Gupta, W. L. Darnell, and A. C. Wilber, “A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from satellite data: Recent improvements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31(12), 1361–1367 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D. M.

M. C. Pitts, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, and D. M. Winker, “Characterization of polar stratospheric clouds with space-borne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(19), 5207–5228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, and M. P. Barkley, “Colour indices for the detection and differentiation of cloud types in infrared limb emission spectra,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1041–1047 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

J.-M. Flaud, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, A. Perrin, and M. Ridolfi, “MIPAS database: validation of HNO3 line parameters using MIPAS satellite measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5037–5048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, and D. M. Winker, “Characterization of polar stratospheric clouds with space-borne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic season,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(19), 5207–5228 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, B. P. Luo, P. Massoli, F. Cairo, R. Spang, M. Snels, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, and U. Biermann, “Spectroscopic evidence for NAT, STS, and ice in MIPAS infrared limb emission measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(5), 1201–1219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, and L. W. Thomason, “CALIPSO polar stratospheric cloud observations: second-generation detection algorithm and composition discrimination,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(19), 7577–7589 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Puķīte, S. Kühl, T. Deutschmann, U. Platt, and T. Wagner, “Accounting for the effect of horizontal gradients in limb measurements of scattered sunlight,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(12), 3045–3060 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, L. J. Kramer, L. R. Poole, M. D. Fromm, M. Müller, G. Baumgarten, and P. Konopka, “Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(3), 679–692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc.

J. Ungermann, L. Hoffmann, P. Preusse, M. Kaufmann, and M. Riese, “Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER infrared limb-sounder,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 339–354 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hurley, A. Dudhia, and D. Grainger, “Retrieval of macrophysical cloud parameters from MIPAS: algorithm description,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 4(4), 683–704 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kiefer, E. Arnone, A. Dudhia, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Kleinert, A. Linden, M. Milz, E. Papandrea, and G. Stiller, “Impact of temperature field inhomogeneities on the retrieval of atmospheric species from MIPAS IR limb emission spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(5), 1487–1507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Dinelli, E. Arnone, G. Brizzi, M. Carlotti, E. Castelli, L. Magnani, E. Papandrea, M. Prevedelli, and M. Ridolfi, “The MIPAS2D database of MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements retrieved with a multi-target 2-dimensional tomographic approach,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Disc. 3(2), 355–374 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. Mendrok, F. Schreier, and M. Höpfner, “Estimating cirrus cloud properties from MIPAS data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(8), L08807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang and J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(16), 1875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, H. Oelhaf, G. Wetzel, F. Friedl-Vallon, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, G. Maucher, H. Nordmeyer, N. Glatthor, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, C. Kröger, and T. Deshler, “Evidence of scattering of tropospheric radiation by PSCs in mid-IR limb emission spectra: MIPAS-B observations and KOPRA simulations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(8), 1278 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.

N. J. Livesey, W. Van Snyder, W. G. Read, and P. A. Wagner, “Retrieval algorithms for the EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 44(5), 1144–1155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

S. K. Gupta, W. L. Darnell, and A. C. Wilber, “A parameterization for longwave surface radiation from satellite data: Recent improvements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 31(12), 1361–1367 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Pavolonis and A. K. Heidinger, “Daytime cloud overlap detection from AVHRR and VIIRS,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 43(5), 762–778 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

S. T. Massie, P. L. Bailey, J. C. Gille, E. C. Lee, J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, and W. A. Lahoz, “Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51(20), 3027–3044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Clim.

A. K. Heidinger and M. J. Pavolonis, “Global daytime distribution of overlapping cirrus cloud from NOAA’s advanced very high resolution radiometer,” J. Clim. 18(22), 4772–4784 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

D. Offermann, K. U. Grossmann, P. Barthol, P. Knieling, M. Riese, and R. Trant, “The cryogenic infrared spectrometers and telescopes for the atmosphere (CRISTA) experiment and middle atmosphere variability,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D13), 16311–16325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, M. Riese, G. Eidmann, D. Offermann, L. Pfister, and P. H. Wang, “CRISTA observations of cirrus clouds around the tropopause,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D23), 8174 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, and K. S. Skeens, “A 6-year climatology of cloud occurrence frequency from SAGE II observations (1985–1990),” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 29407–29430 (1996).

M. Höpfner, M. C. Pitts, and L. R. Poole, “Comparison between CALIPSO and MIPAS observations of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D00H05 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, and J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H 2 O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

M. Höpfner and C. Emde, “Comparison of single and multiple scattering approaches for the simulation of limb–emission observations in the mid–IR,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 91(3), 275–285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. B. L. Ewen, R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, and A. J. Baran, “Infrared radiative transfer modelling in a 3D scattering cloudy atmosphere: Application to limb sounding measurements of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 96(1), 45–74 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, “Study on the impact of polar stratospheric clouds on high resolution mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 83(1), 93–107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

E. Castelli, B. M. Dinelli, M. Carlotti, M. Ridolfi, E. Arnone, and E. Papandrea, “Broadband_clouds: a tool for 2D representation of clouds in MIPAS/ENVISAT scenario, description and applications,” in Proceedings of ESA Atmospheric Science Conference 2009, H. Lacoste, ed. (ESA SP-676, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2009).

J. T. Houghton, The Physics of Atmospheres, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University 1986).

G. Brizzi, “Development of an analysis system finalized to the identification of unpredicted spectral features in MIPAS-ENVISAT measurements and to the monitoring of the atmospheric composition,” PhD Thesis for Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica – Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy, (2006).

J. J. Remedios and R. Spang, “Detection of cloud effects in MIPAS spectral data and implications for the MIPAS operational processor,” in Proceedings of the ENVISAT calibration review, Huguette Sawaya-Lacoste ed., (ESA SP-520, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2002).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison between limb spectra for 11 km tangent altitude in case of strong absorption (single scattering albedo = 0.24) extracted from Fig. 1 of [25] with superimposed spectra calculated using the BB_Clouds2D FM in light grey for the different scenarios.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left panel: Atmospheric discretization into cloves and cloud representation as a group of cloudy cloves (dark grey) and as a shell (light grey). Right panel: Atmospheric discretization and cloud representation as an ensemble of cloudy cloves (dark grey) and as a shell (light grey) in a representation where the Earth’s atmosphere is flattened. The three black lines represent the pencil beams at the centre and at the edges of MIPAS instrumental FOV. The irregular symbols along the line of sight represent the intersection between the pencil beams and both altitude levels (not shown in the figure) and radii. See text for further details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left panel: FOV function in arbitrary units (green) and radiances at 947.5 cm−1 calculated for 3 pencil beams in clear sky (blue) or completely cloudy FOV (red) together with 11 pencil beams calculation (orange) and two polynomials approach (purple) for partially cloudy FOV (cloud top position given by dashed line). Right panel: Difference between simulated MIPAS spectra after convolution with FOV calculated using 11 pencil beams and our approach (orange) and 11 pencil beams and single polynomial approach (grey) together with noise level (green). The dotted line marks the 947.5 cm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upper panels: cloud entering MIPAS FOV from satellite’s side with respect to the tangent point. Lower panel: BB_Clouds2D simulated spectra for different cloud amount into MIPAS FOV as in upper panels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

As Fig. 4 but for cloud entering MIPAS FOV from satellite opposite side respect to the tangent point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top left: Case a): Cloud entering the MIPAS FOV from the satellite opposite side with respect to the tangent point (dark grey) and cloudy shell (cyan). Top right case b): Cloud entering the MIPAS FOV from the satellite side with respect to the tangent point (dark grey) and cloudy shell (cyan). Bottom: Simulated spectra in case of a cloudy shell, in case a) and b) and difference between case b) and a) respect to the noise level.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top left panel: Case a) Cloud entering the MIPAS FOV from the satellite opposite side respect to the tangent point. Top right panel: Case b) Cloud entering MIPAS FOV from the satellite side with respect to the tangent point. Bottom: Simulated spectra in case b) and a) and their difference with respect to the noise level for N = 0.01 cm−3 (left), N = 0.1 cm−3 (middle) and N = 1 cm−3 (right panel).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Top left panel: Case a) FOV partially cloudy in both horizontal and vertical (CTH = 21 km). Top middle panel: Case b) FOV partially cloudy in horizontal (CTH = 23.6 km). Top right panel: Case c) FOV completely cloudy in horizontal and partially cloudy in vertical (CTH = 21 km). Bottom left panel: Simulated spectra in case c) and a), their difference and corresponding noise level. Bottom middle panel: Simulated spectra, their difference and corresponding noise level for cases b) and a). Bottom right panel: Simulated spectra, their difference and corresponding noise level for cases c) and b).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated MIPAS limb views for scan 29, 30 and 31 of orbit 4198 for the 19 December 2002. The simulated cloud used to produce the synthetic spectra (grey shade) partially fills in horizontal domain the FOV for scans 29 and 31. The cloud used as initial guess for our retrieval tests is also shown (red shade).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cloud contaminated limb views for MIPAS scan 24 and 25 of orbit 35681 and simulated cloud following coincident data from CALIPSO (grey). The cloud extent retrieved (in terms of CTH and X2) using higher limb views of scan 24 and 25 is marked in red (see text for details).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Left panel: MIPAS scan 24 and 25 of orbit 35681 on the 26 December 2008 and coincident CALIOP data. CTH in km for PSC layer is plotted using a colour code, while black crosses represents clear sky part of MIPAS FOV and the black line represents clear sky CALIOP measurements. Horizontal lines represent the latitude-longitude position of the intersections between MIPAS LOS for scan 24 and 25 and CTH level. Right panel: MIPAS limb views of scans 24 and 25, retrieved BB_Clouds2D CTH and cloud extent (light blue) and coincident CALIOP data (red for aerosol-PSCs and orange for cloud data).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Retrieval Tests on Cloud Extent from Multiple Limb Viewsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Retrieval Tests on Cloud Extent from Multiple Limb Views Using Two Different Retrieval Approachesa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI(s,n,ω) ds = k e ( s,ω )I( s,n,ω )+ k a (s,ω)B( s,ω )+ k s 4π dn' a 1 (n,n',s,ω)I(s,n',ω) ,
x i+1 = x i + [ K T S n 1 K ] 1 [ K T S n 1 n ].

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