Abstract

Plasmonic nanosensors are promising for chip-based refractometric detections, most of which are based on spectroscopic monitoring of surface plasmon resonance. Here, we propose a simple non-spectroscopic refractometric sensing scheme based on a plasmonic interferometer integrating a metallic groove array and a tilted nanoslit. Owing to the interference of the directly transmitted light from the nanoslit and that mediated by the surface plasmon polaritons launched from the groove array, high-contrast intensity fringe can be detected under the illumination of monochromatic light. By inspecting the spatial shift of the interference fringe, the refractive index change of the cover analyte can be derived. In our experiment, the interferometer shows a sensitivity up to 5 × 103 μm/RIU and a figure of merit as high as 250. This sensor shows great potential for low-cost, portable, and high-throughput sensing applications due to its simple, robust, and non-spectroscopic scheme.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hänchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261108 (2006).
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  5. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Gan, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Vertical plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensitive optical sensing,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20747–20755 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-20747 .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
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  12. K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
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  13. F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. V. Temnov, U. Woggon, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon interferometry: measuring group velocity of surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1235–1237 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Z. Wang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, and D. J. Whitehouse, “Phase difference determination by fringe pattern matching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(6), 417–422 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Q. Gan, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Vertical plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensitive optical sensing,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20747–20755 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-23-20747 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, C. Zhao, and Q. Gong, “Refractive index sensor based on surface-plasmon interference,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 392–394 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1745–1754 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-4-1745 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, U. Woggon, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon interferometry: measuring group velocity of surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1235–1237 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hänchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1528–1530 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Realization of a multichannel integrated Young interferometer chemical sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5649–5660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

Z. Wang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, and D. J. Whitehouse, “Phase difference determination by fringe pattern matching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(6), 417–422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alloschery, O.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baev, A.

Bartoli, F. J.

Betts, R. E.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S. N.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bornhop, D. J.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

Z. Wang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, and D. J. Whitehouse, “Phase difference determination by fringe pattern matching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(6), 417–422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carrington, S.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, V.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunin, F.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

Dintinger, J.

Dmitriev, A.

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domínguez, C.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Freeman, N. J.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, Q.

Gao, T.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Gay, G.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Q.

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heideman, R. G.

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henzie, J.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hänchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirscher, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogle, J. M.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, J.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, R.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R. D.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabashin, A.

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanger, J. S.

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kussrow, A.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, D. N.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latham, J. C.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, W. C.

Lechuga, L. M.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, J. R.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markov, D. A.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markowicz, P. P.

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montoya, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Dwyer, C.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patskovsky, S.

Peel, L. L.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reiver, S. H.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sailor, M. J.

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schedin, F.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sepúlveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørensen, H. S.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svedendahl, M.

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, M. J.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temnov, V. V.

Tetz, K. A.

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viaris de Lesegno, B.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, and D. J. Whitehouse, “Phase difference determination by fringe pattern matching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(6), 417–422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehouse, D. J.

Z. Wang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, and D. J. Whitehouse, “Phase difference determination by fringe pattern matching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(6), 417–422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wijn, R.

Woggon, U.

Wu, X.

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.-C.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hänchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ymeti, A.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, C.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hänchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

J.-C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Multiplexed plasmonic sensing based on small-dimension nanohole arrays and intensity interrogation,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(8), 2334–2338 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svedendahl, S. Chen, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Refractometric sensing using propagating versus localized surface plasmons: a direct comparison,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4428–4433 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H. J. Lezec, “The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 262–267 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

Z. Wang, P. J. Bryanston-Cross, and D. J. Whitehouse, “Phase difference determination by fringe pattern matching,” Opt. Laser Technol. 28(6), 417–422 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. G. Kravets, F. Schedin, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Extremely narrow plasmon resonances based on diffraction coupling of localized plasmons in arrays of metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(8), 087403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

Y. Y. Li, F. Cunin, J. R. Link, T. Gao, R. E. Betts, S. H. Reiver, V. Chin, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Polymer replicas of photonic porous silicon for sensing and drug delivery applications,” Science 299(5615), 2045–2047 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the proposed tilted nanoslit-groove interferometer. X is the auxiliary coordinate axis by rotating the x axis with a small angle α. (b) Cross-section view of the interferometer. (c) SEM image of a fabricated sample with N = 10, L0 = 15.8 μm, and α = 4°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated transmission from the tilted nanoslit-groove interferometer with air as the upper dielectric. (a) Normalized transmitted intensity from the nanoslit by illuminating only a single nanoslit with varied w (the solid line) or illuminating only the groove array in a slit-groove structure with w = 100 nm, p = 1054 nm, and different N (the dashed line). (b) Normalized total transmitted intensity from the nanoslit by illuminating the whole slit-groove structure with w = 100 nm, p = 1054 nm, and N = 11. (c1) and (c2) show the distributions of magnetic field component Hz in the slit-groove structure when L = 16.58 μm and 17.08 μm as indicated by arrows c1 and c2 in (b), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic and experimental setup of the optical characterization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental characterization of the transmitted interference fringes in two samples with N = 10, pλspp = 1054 nm, w = 100 nm, L0 = 15.8 μm, and α = 2° or 4°. (a) Measured CCD image (false color image) of the interference fringe in a sample with α = 2°. (b) The same as (a) but for a sample with α = 4°. (c) Fringe profiles along the central lines of the nanoslits retrieved from (a) and (b) and fitted with Eq. (1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured interference fringes of two samples with NaCl solution of different concentrations as the upper dielectric: (a) and (c) for Sample I with L0 = 127.7 μm and α = 1°; and (b) and (d) for Sample II with L0 = 127.7 μm and α = 2°. (a) and (b) are the CCD false color images of the transmitted interference fringes. (c) and (d) are the intensity profiles along the central nanoslits and their cosine fitting curves. The curves are vertically displaced by 230 for clarity of demonstration. The dashed lines are visual guides to the valley positions of the interference fringes. The dashed circles show the position of a defect in the nanoslit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Valley positions of the interference curves extracted from Fig. 5 and their linear fitting for Sample I (red points and curves) and Sample II (blue points and curves). The inset shows the refractive indices of the analytes measured by an Abbe refractometer. (b) Theoretical (lines) and experimental (symbols) comparisons of the sensitivity S and FOM for different samples with varied L0 (67.7 μm, 87.7 μm, 107.7 μm, and 127.7 μm) and α (1° and 2°).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contrast of the interference fringes in the eight samples used in the sensing experiment with respect to the change of L0

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated interference fringes contributed by each grooves (the blue curves) and the superposed total interference fringe (the red curve) in a slit-groove structure with L0 = 120μm and α = 1°.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Measured and Theoretically Estimated Sensing Performances of Two Samples

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I( X )= E spp 2 + E dir 2 +2 E spp E dir cos[ k 0 L( X ) ε m n 2 ε m + n 2 + k 0 L( X )sinγ+ φ 0 ],
d= ( ε m n 2 ε m + n 2 +sinγ ) 1 λ sinα .
S= ΔX Δn = ε m ε m n+ n 3 ( L 0 sinα +X ) ε m ε m n+ n 3 L 0 sinα ,
FOM= S d/2 =2 ( ε m ε m + n 2 ) 3 2 L 0 λ .
V= 2 I spp I dir I spp + I dir = 2 exp( 2 k spp ΔL ) exp( 2 k spp ΔL )+1 =0.2479,
I( X )= E spp 2 + E dir 2 +2 E spp E dir cos[ φ spp (X)+ φ inc (X)+ φ 0 ],
φ spp ( X )= k spp L( X )= k 0 ( ε m n 2 ε m + n 2 ) 1 2 L( X ),
φ inc ( X )= k 0 L( X )sinγ,
φ spp (X)+ φ inc (X)+ φ 0 =const,
S= dX dn = ( ε m ε m + n 2 ) 3 2 ( L 0 +Xsinα )+ d φ 0 dn [ ( ε m n 2 ε m + n 2 ) 1 2 +sinγ ]sinα ,
S= ε m ε m n+ n 3 ( L 0 sinα +X ),
S ε m ε m n+ n 3 L 0 sinα .

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