Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel simultaneous strain and temperature fiber optic sensor. The sensing head is formed by two concatenated ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector lasers that operate in single longitude mode with two polarization modes. The total length of the sensing head is only 18 mm. The two lasers generate two polarization mode beat notes in the radio-frequency range which show different frequency response to strain and temperature. Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement can be achieved by radio-frequency measurement. This approach has distinctive advantages of ease of interrogation and avoidance of expensive wavelength detection.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32(12), 1133–1134 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1085–1087 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Proc. 12th International Conference Optical Fibre Sensors, pp. 170–173, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, October 28–31, 1997.
  6. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 675–677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. F. Lima, P. F. Antunes, J. D. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature With a Single Fiber Bragg Grating Written in a Tapered Optical Fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(2), 269–273 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Lui, G. F. Fernando, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, Y. J. Rao, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a combined fibre Bragg grating/extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor,” in Proc. 12th International Conference Optical Fibre Sensors, pp. 40–43, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, October 28–31, 1997.
  11. D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, W. K. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. W. Y. Lit, “Simultaneous measurement for strain and temperature using fiber Bragg gratings and multimode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47(10), 1668–1672 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, C. Y. Liaw, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a compact photonic crystal fiber inter-modal interferometer and a fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 49(32), 6232–6235 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, and J. P. Dakin, “Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 115–120 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10050–10055 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. F. Lima, P. F. Antunes, J. D. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature With a Single Fiber Bragg Grating Written in a Tapered Optical Fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(2), 269–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Dong, J. Z. Hao, C. Y. Liaw, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a compact photonic crystal fiber inter-modal interferometer and a fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 49(32), 6232–6235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, and J. P. Dakin, “Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 115–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32(12), 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Antunes, P. F.

H. F. Lima, P. F. Antunes, J. D. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature With a Single Fiber Bragg Grating Written in a Tapered Optical Fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(2), 269–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cavaleiro, P. M.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W. H.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crickmore, R. I.

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, and J. P. Dakin, “Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 115–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, and J. P. Dakin, “Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 115–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dockney, M. L.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32(12), 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

Dong, X. Y.

L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10050–10055 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, M. J.

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, and J. P. Dakin, “Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 115–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hadeler, O.

Hao, J. Z.

He, S. L.

L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. L.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

James, S. W.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32(12), 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

Liaw, C. Y.

Lima, H. F.

H. F. Lima, P. F. Antunes, J. D. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature With a Single Fiber Bragg Grating Written in a Tapered Optical Fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(2), 269–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

Lit, J. W. Y.

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. K.

Liu, Y.

Nogueira, R. N.

H. F. Lima, P. F. Antunes, J. D. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature With a Single Fiber Bragg Grating Written in a Tapered Optical Fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(2), 269–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. D. L.

H. F. Lima, P. F. Antunes, J. D. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature With a Single Fiber Bragg Grating Written in a Tapered Optical Fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(2), 269–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rønnekleiv, E.

Santos, J. L.

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, J.

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, and J. P. Dakin, “Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 115–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Y. Zhang, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Ultra-short distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10050–10055 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Guan, Y. N. Tan, and H. Y. Tam, “Dual polarization fiber grating laser hydrophone,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19544–19550 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y. N.

Tao, X. M.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32(12), 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

Williams, G. M.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, D. P.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 32(12), 1133–1134 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, “Discrimination between strain and temperature effects using dual-wavelength fibre grating sensors,” Electron. Lett. 30(13), 1085–1087 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, S. L. Ho, W. H. Chung, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fibre Bragg grating,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1018–1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1223–1225 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a superstructure fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(6), 675–677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Cavaleiro, F. M. Araújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings written in germanosilicate and boron-codoped germanosilicate fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1635–1637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. L. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J.

R. I. Crickmore, M. J. Gunning, J. Stefanov, and J. P. Dakin, “Beat frequency measurement system for multiple dual polarization fiber DFB lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 3(1), 115–120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Lima, P. F. Antunes, J. D. L. Pinto, and R. N. Nogueira, “Simultaneous Measurement of Strain and Temperature With a Single Fiber Bragg Grating Written in a Tapered Optical Fiber,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(2), 269–273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. B. Liu, H. Y. Liu, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Strain and temperature sensor using a combination of polymer and silica fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Commun. 219(1-6), 139–142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

M. Sudo, M. Nakai, K. Himeno, S. Suzaki, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using PANDA fiber grating,” in Proc. 12th International Conference Optical Fibre Sensors, pp. 170–173, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, October 28–31, 1997.

T. Lui, G. F. Fernando, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, Y. J. Rao, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a combined fibre Bragg grating/extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor,” in Proc. 12th International Conference Optical Fibre Sensors, pp. 40–43, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, October 28–31, 1997.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed simultaneous strain and temperature sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical output spectrum of the concatenated DBR fiber lasers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beat note spectrum of the concatenated DBR fiber lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Strain response of the proposed simultaneous strain and temperature sensor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature response of the proposed simultaneous strain and temperature sensor.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L eff = L 0 + l eff1 + l eff2 ,
δ( Δν ) Δν =[ 1 B δB δε ( 1 p e ) ]δε+[ 1 B δB δT ( α+ξ ) ]δT,
[ δ ( Δν ) Er δ ( Δν ) Er/Yb ]=[ k Er,ε k Er,T k Er/Yb,ε k Er/Yb,T ][ δε δT ]=K[ δε δT ].
[ δε δT ]= 1 5639.7 [ 8.756.42 6781142 ][ δ ( Δν ) Er δ ( Δν ) Er/Yb ],

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