Abstract

End-to-end real-time experimental demonstrations are reported, for the first time, of aggregated 11.25Gb/s over 26.4km standard SMF, optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OOFDMA) PONs with adaptive dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA). The demonstrated intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) OOFDMA PON system consists of two optical network units (ONUs), each of which employs a DFB-based directly modulated laser (DML) or a VCSEL-based DML for modulating upstream signals. Extensive experimental explorations of dynamic OOFDMA PON system properties are undertaken utilizing identified optimum DML operating conditions. It is shown that, for simultaneously achieving acceptable BERs for all upstream signals, the OOFDMA PON system has a >3dB dynamic ONU launch power variation range, and the BER performance of the system is insusceptible to any upstream symbol offsets slightly smaller than the adopted cyclic prefix. In addition, experimental results also indicate that, in addition to maximizing the aggregated system transmission capacity, adaptive DBA can also effectively reduce imperfections in transmission channel properties without affecting signal bit rates offered to individual ONUs.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. E. Wong, “Current and next-generation broadband access technologies”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2011), Paper NMD1.
  2. L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, “Next-Generation Optical Access Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3428–3442 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Suzuki, K. Nakura, T. Suehiro, M. Nogami, S. Kosaki, and J. Nakagawa, “Over-Sampling based Burst-mode CDR Technology for High-speed TDM-PON Systems”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2011), Paper OThT3.
  4. J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-POJN and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1290–1297 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Qian, J. Hu, J. Yu, P. N. Ji, L. Xu, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Kusano, “Experimental demonstration of a novel OFDM-A based 10 Gb/s PON architecture,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Berlin, 2007), Paper Mo 5.4.1.
  6. D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1265–1267 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration and optimisation of a synchronous clock recovery technique for real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 11.25Gb/s over 25km SSMF,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2831–2845 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2979–2988 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 187–196 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Morelli, C.-C. J. Kuo, and M.-O. Pun, “Synchronization Techniques for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA): A Tutorial Review,” Proc. IEEE 95(7), 1394–1427 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Nölle, L. Molle, D.-D. Gross, and R. Freund, “Transmission of 5x62 Gbit/s DWDM coherent OFDM with a spectral efficiency of 7.2 bit/s/Hz using joint 64-QAM and 16-QAM modulation”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2010), Paper OMR4.
  17. J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration and optimisation of a synchronous clock recovery technique for real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 11.25Gb/s over 25km SSMF,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2831–2845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2979–2988 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 187–196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-POJN and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1290–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1265–1267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Morelli, C.-C. J. Kuo, and M.-O. Pun, “Synchronization Techniques for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA): A Tutorial Review,” Proc. IEEE 95(7), 1394–1427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, W.-T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, and S.-W. Wong, “Next-Generation Optical Access Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3428–3442 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, N.

Cvijetic, N.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1265–1267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giacoumidis, E.

Giddings, R. P.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2979–2988 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration and optimisation of a synchronous clock recovery technique for real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 11.25Gb/s over 25km SSMF,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2831–2845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutierrez, D.

Hong, Y.

Hong, Y. H.

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1265–1267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hugues-Salas, E.

Jin, X. Q.

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 187–196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2979–2988 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kani, J.

J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-POJN and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1290–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kuo, C.-C. J.

M. Morelli, C.-C. J. Kuo, and M.-O. Pun, “Synchronization Techniques for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA): A Tutorial Review,” Proc. IEEE 95(7), 1394–1427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morelli, M.

M. Morelli, C.-C. J. Kuo, and M.-O. Pun, “Synchronization Techniques for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA): A Tutorial Review,” Proc. IEEE 95(7), 1394–1427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pun, M.-O.

M. Morelli, C.-C. J. Kuo, and M.-O. Pun, “Synchronization Techniques for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA): A Tutorial Review,” Proc. IEEE 95(7), 1394–1427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qian, D.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1265–1267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, T.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, C.

Shaw, W.-T.

Shu, C.

Tang, J. M.

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2979–2988 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 187–196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration and optimisation of a synchronous clock recovery technique for real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 11.25Gb/s over 25km SSMF,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2831–2845 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5541–5555 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wei, C. Sánchez, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Significant improvements in optical power budgets of real-time optical OFDM PON systems,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20732–20745 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14574–14585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, P.-L.

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1265–1267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J. L.

Wong, S.-W.

Zheng, X.

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, X. Zheng, Y. Hong, C. Shu, and J. M. Tang, “Real-time experimental demonstration of low-cost VCSEL intensity-modulated 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDM signal transmission over 25 km PON systems,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2979–2988 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, and J. Hu, “100 Gb/s optical access based on optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 70–77 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

Y.-M. Lin and P.-L. Tien, “Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28(6), 791–799 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-POJN and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1290–1297 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, and T. Wang, “A novel OFDMA-PON architecture with source-free ONUs for next-generation optical access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1265–1267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, Y. H. Hong, and J. M. Tang, “Negative power penalties of optical OFDM signal transmissions in directly modulated DFB laser-based IMDD systems incorporating negative dispersion fibres,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(4), 532–542 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Jin and J. M. Tang, “Optical OFDM synchronization with symbol timing offset and sampling clock offset compensation in real-time IMDD systems,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 187–196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

M. Morelli, C.-C. J. Kuo, and M.-O. Pun, “Synchronization Techniques for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA): A Tutorial Review,” Proc. IEEE 95(7), 1394–1427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Nölle, L. Molle, D.-D. Gross, and R. Freund, “Transmission of 5x62 Gbit/s DWDM coherent OFDM with a spectral efficiency of 7.2 bit/s/Hz using joint 64-QAM and 16-QAM modulation”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2010), Paper OMR4.

E. Wong, “Current and next-generation broadband access technologies”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2011), Paper NMD1.

N. Suzuki, K. Nakura, T. Suehiro, M. Nogami, S. Kosaki, and J. Nakagawa, “Over-Sampling based Burst-mode CDR Technology for High-speed TDM-PON Systems”, Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC), (USA, 2011), Paper OThT3.

D. Qian, J. Hu, J. Yu, P. N. Ji, L. Xu, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Kusano, “Experimental demonstration of a novel OFDM-A based 10 Gb/s PON architecture,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), (Berlin, 2007), Paper Mo 5.4.1.

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