Abstract

We report compact, low-cost and efficient Cr:Colquiriite lasers that are pumped by high brightness tapered laser diodes. The tapered laser diodes provided 1 to 1.2 W of output power around 675 nm, at an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of about 30%. Using a single tapered diode laser as the pump source, we have demonstrated output powers of 500 mW and 410 mW together with slope efficiencies of 47% and 41% from continuous wave (cw) Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers, respectively. In cw mode-locked operation, sub-100-fs pulse trains with average power between 200 mW and 250 mW were obtained at repetition rates around 100 MHz. Upon pumping the Cr:Colquiriite lasers with two tapered laser diodes (one from each side of the crystal), we have observed scaling of cw powers to 850 mW in Cr:LiSAF and to 650 mW in Cr:LiCAF. From the double side pumped Cr:LiCAF laser, we have also obtained ~220 fs long pulses with 5.4 nJ of pulse energy at 77 MHz repetition rate. These are the highest energy levels reported from Cr:Colquiriite so far at these repetition rates. Our findings indicate that tapered diodes in the red spectral region are likely to become the standard pump source for Cr:Colquiriite lasers in the near future. Moreover, the simplified pumping scheme might facilitate efficient commercialization of Cr:Colquiriite systems, bearing the potential to significantly boost applications of cw and femtosecond lasers in this spectral region (750-1000 nm).

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (4)

2010 (5)

2009 (5)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

2002 (4)

P. Klopp, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and G. Erbert, “Passively mode-locked Yb:KYWlaser pumped by a tapered diode laser,” Opt. Express 10(2), 108–113 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. C. Wagenblast, U. Morgner, F. Grawert, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and M. J. Lederer, “Generation of sub-10-fs pulses from a Kerr-lens modelocked Cr3+:LiCAF laser oscillator using third order dispersion compensating double chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1726–1728 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr: LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205(1-3), 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

D. Klimm, G. Lacayo, and P. Reiche, “Growth of Cr:LiCaAlF6 and Cr:LiSrAlF6 by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 210(4), 683–693 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 10 fs pulses from a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 6A), 3472–3473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Lacayo, I. Hahnert, D. Klimm, P. Reiche, and W. Neumann, “Transmission electron microscope study of secondary phases in Cr3+: LiCaAlF6 single crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(9), 1221–1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Klimm and P. Reiche, “Ternary colquiriite type fluorides as laser hosts,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 145–152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

D. Klimm and P. Reiche, “Nonstoichiometry of the new laser host LiCaAlF6,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33(3), 409–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Eichenholz and M. Richardson, “Measurement of thermal lensing in Cr3+-doped colquiriites,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Robertson, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped broadly tunable (809-910 nm) femtosecond Cr: LiSAF laser,” Opt. Commun. 147(4-6), 294–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and gast daturable absorbers - what's the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr(3+):LiSrAlF(6)laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22(21), 1639–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, E. Wintner, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. Szipöcs, “14-fs pulse generation in Kerr-lens mode-locked prismless Cr:LiSGaF and Cr:LiSAF lasers: observation of pulse self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 22(22), 1716–1718 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-Switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 269–278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and S. T. Cundiff, “High efficiency diode pumping of a saturable Bragg reflector-mode-locked Cr:LiSAF femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, and G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 58–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

M. Stalder, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Thermal quenching of fluoresence in chromium-doped fluoride laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(12), 2271–2273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Smith, S. A. Payne, W. L. Kway, L. L. Chase, and B. H. T. Chai, “Investigation of the laser properties of Cr3+:LiSrGaF6,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2612–2618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1989 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(3), 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+ a promising new solid-state laser material,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(11), 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1966 (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Adamiec, P.

B. Sumpf, P. Adamiec, M. Zorn, H. Wenzel, and G. Erbert, “Nearly diffraction limited tapered lasers at 675 nm with 1 W output power and conversion efficiencies above 30%,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 266–268 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Agate, B.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205(1-3), 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr: LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, P. E.

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H. P. H. Cheng, O. B. Jensen, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, and C. Pedersen, “Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(23), 4717–4721 (2010).
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Arie, A.

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H. P. H. Cheng, O. B. Jensen, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, and C. Pedersen, “Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(23), 4717–4721 (2010).
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D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
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S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
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S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
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Demirbas, U.

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D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1446–1448 (2010).
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U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Kärtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100 nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 607–609 (2010).
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U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Generation of 15 nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 497–499 (2009).
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U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14374–14388 (2009).
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U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparative investigation of diode pumping for continuous-wave and mode-locked Cr3+:LiCAF lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(1), 64–79 (2009).
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S. Sakadzić, U. Demirbas, T. R. Mempel, A. Moore, S. Ruvinskaya, D. A. Boas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multi-photon microscopy with a low-cost and highly efficient Cr:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20848–20863 (2008).
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U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Highly efficient, low-cost femtosecond Cr3+ :LiCAF laser pumped by single-mode diodes,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 590–592 (2008).
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U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, A. Benedick, A. Siddiqui, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped, high-average power femtosecond Cr+3:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3309–3311 (2007).
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F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New laser crystals for the generation of ultrashort pulses,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 153–164 (2007).
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B. Sumpf, P. Adamiec, M. Zorn, H. Wenzel, and G. Erbert, “Nearly diffraction limited tapered lasers at 675 nm with 1 W output power and conversion efficiencies above 30%,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 266–268 (2011).
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A. Müller, O. B. Jensen, A. Unterhuber, T. Le, A. Stingl, K.-H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12156–12163 (2011).
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H. P. H. Cheng, O. B. Jensen, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, and C. Pedersen, “Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(23), 4717–4721 (2010).
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B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
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D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
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Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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Fricke, J.

B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
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U. Demirbas, G. S. Petrich, D. Li, A. Sennaroglu, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond tuning of Cr:Colquiriite lasers with AlGaAs-based saturable Bragg reflectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(5), 986–993 (2011).
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U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Kärtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100 nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 607–609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1446–1448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Generation of 15 nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 497–499 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparative investigation of diode pumping for continuous-wave and mode-locked Cr3+:LiCAF lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(1), 64–79 (2009).
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U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14374–14388 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sakadzić, U. Demirbas, T. R. Mempel, A. Moore, S. Ruvinskaya, D. A. Boas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multi-photon microscopy with a low-cost and highly efficient Cr:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20848–20863 (2008).
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U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Highly efficient, low-cost femtosecond Cr3+ :LiCAF laser pumped by single-mode diodes,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 590–592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, A. Benedick, A. Siddiqui, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped, high-average power femtosecond Cr+3:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3309–3311 (2007).
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Gayer, O.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
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Georges, P.

F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New laser crystals for the generation of ultrashort pulses,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 153–164 (2007).
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F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-Switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 269–278 (1997).
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Hopkins, J. M.

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr: LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 360–368 (2002).
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J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
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G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr(3+):LiSrAlF(6)laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22(21), 1639–1641 (1997).
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Isemann, A.

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S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
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A. Müller, O. B. Jensen, A. Unterhuber, T. Le, A. Stingl, K.-H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12156–12163 (2011).
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Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1446–1448 (2010).
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U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Kärtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100 nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 607–609 (2010).
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U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Generation of 15 nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 497–499 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparative investigation of diode pumping for continuous-wave and mode-locked Cr3+:LiCAF lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(1), 64–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Highly efficient, low-cost femtosecond Cr3+ :LiCAF laser pumped by single-mode diodes,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 590–592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, A. Benedick, A. Siddiqui, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped, high-average power femtosecond Cr+3:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3309–3311 (2007).
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P. Wagenblast, R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. Grawert, and F. X. Kärtner, “Diode-pumped 10-fs Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1713–1715 (2003).
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P. C. Wagenblast, U. Morgner, F. Grawert, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and M. J. Lederer, “Generation of sub-10-fs pulses from a Kerr-lens modelocked Cr3+:LiCAF laser oscillator using third order dispersion compensating double chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1726–1728 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and gast daturable absorbers - what's the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205(1-3), 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr: LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and gast daturable absorbers - what's the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 304–306 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3334–3336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr: LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205(1-3), 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

Kerboull, F.

F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-Switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 269–278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klein, J.

J. Klein and J. D. Kafka, “The Ti:Sapphire Laser: The flexible research tool,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klimm, D.

D. Klimm, G. Lacayo, and P. Reiche, “Growth of Cr:LiCaAlF6 and Cr:LiSrAlF6 by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 210(4), 683–693 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Klimm and P. Reiche, “Ternary colquiriite type fluorides as laser hosts,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 145–152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Lacayo, I. Hahnert, D. Klimm, P. Reiche, and W. Neumann, “Transmission electron microscope study of secondary phases in Cr3+: LiCaAlF6 single crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(9), 1221–1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Klimm and P. Reiche, “Nonstoichiometry of the new laser host LiCaAlF6,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33(3), 409–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klopp, P.

Knappe, R.

A. Robertson, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped broadly tunable (809-910 nm) femtosecond Cr: LiSAF laser,” Opt. Commun. 147(4-6), 294–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and S. T. Cundiff, “High efficiency diode pumping of a saturable Bragg reflector-mode-locked Cr:LiSAF femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Kopf, D.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+ a promising new solid-state laser material,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(11), 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

L. K. Smith, S. A. Payne, W. L. Kway, L. L. Chase, and B. H. T. Chai, “Investigation of the laser properties of Cr3+:LiSrGaF6,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2612–2618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(3), 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lacayo, G.

D. Klimm, G. Lacayo, and P. Reiche, “Growth of Cr:LiCaAlF6 and Cr:LiSrAlF6 by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 210(4), 683–693 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Lacayo, I. Hahnert, D. Klimm, P. Reiche, and W. Neumann, “Transmission electron microscope study of secondary phases in Cr3+: LiCaAlF6 single crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(9), 1221–1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Le, T.

Lederer, M. J.

Li, D.

Long, M.

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Luther-Davies, B.

Maclean, A. J.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mellish, R.

Mempel, T. R.

Minoshima, K.

Moore, A.

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R. C.

Moser, M.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Müller, A.

Myers, J. F.

Neumann, W.

G. Lacayo, I. Hahnert, D. Klimm, P. Reiche, and W. Neumann, “Transmission electron microscope study of secondary phases in Cr3+: LiCaAlF6 single crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(9), 1221–1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newkirk, H. W.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(3), 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+ a promising new solid-state laser material,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(11), 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Payne, S. A.

L. K. Smith, S. A. Payne, W. L. Kway, L. L. Chase, and B. H. T. Chai, “Investigation of the laser properties of Cr3+:LiSrGaF6,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2612–2618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(3), 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+ a promising new solid-state laser material,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(11), 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, C.

H. P. H. Cheng, O. B. Jensen, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, and C. Pedersen, “Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(23), 4717–4721 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, P. M.

A. Müller, O. B. Jensen, A. Unterhuber, T. Le, A. Stingl, K.-H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12156–12163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. H. Cheng, O. B. Jensen, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, and C. Pedersen, “Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(23), 4717–4721 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Petrov, V.

Pinto, J. F.

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, and G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 58–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, P.

D. Klimm, G. Lacayo, and P. Reiche, “Growth of Cr:LiCaAlF6 and Cr:LiSrAlF6 by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 210(4), 683–693 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Klimm and P. Reiche, “Ternary colquiriite type fluorides as laser hosts,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 145–152 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Lacayo, I. Hahnert, D. Klimm, P. Reiche, and W. Neumann, “Transmission electron microscope study of secondary phases in Cr3+: LiCaAlF6 single crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(9), 1221–1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Klimm and P. Reiche, “Nonstoichiometry of the new laser host LiCaAlF6,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33(3), 409–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

Richardson, M.

J. M. Eichenholz and M. Richardson, “Measurement of thermal lensing in Cr3+-doped colquiriites,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rines, D. M.

Rines, G. A.

Robertson, A.

A. Robertson, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped broadly tunable (809-910 nm) femtosecond Cr: LiSAF laser,” Opt. Commun. 147(4-6), 294–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, A.

Rosenblatt, G. H.

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, and G. H. Rosenblatt, “Frequency tripling of a Q-switched Cr:LiSAF laser to the UV region,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 58–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roth, P. W.

Ruvinskaya, S.

Sacks, Z.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakadzic, S.

Sander, M. Y.

Scheps, R.

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T. R.

Sennaroglu, A.

U. Demirbas, G. S. Petrich, D. Li, A. Sennaroglu, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond tuning of Cr:Colquiriite lasers with AlGaAs-based saturable Bragg reflectors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(5), 986–993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1446–1448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Kärtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100 nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 607–609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Generation of 15 nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 497–499 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, D. Li, J. R. Birge, A. Sennaroglu, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Low-cost, single-mode diode-pumped Cr:Colquiriite lasers,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14374–14388 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Comparative investigation of diode pumping for continuous-wave and mode-locked Cr3+:LiCAF lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(1), 64–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakadzić, U. Demirbas, T. R. Mempel, A. Moore, S. Ruvinskaya, D. A. Boas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kaertner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Multi-photon microscopy with a low-cost and highly efficient Cr:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20848–20863 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Highly efficient, low-cost femtosecond Cr3+ :LiCAF laser pumped by single-mode diodes,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 590–592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, A. Benedick, A. Siddiqui, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped, high-average power femtosecond Cr+3:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3309–3311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serreze, H. B.

Shen, H. M.

Sibbett, W.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205(1-3), 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr: LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr(3+):LiSrAlF(6)laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22(21), 1639–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siddiqui, A.

Skidmore, J. A.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

L. K. Smith, S. A. Payne, W. L. Kway, L. L. Chase, and B. H. T. Chai, “Investigation of the laser properties of Cr3+:LiSrGaF6,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2612–2618 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(3), 1051–1056 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “LiCaAlF6:Cr3+ a promising new solid-state laser material,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(11), 2243–2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Stalder, M.

Stingl, A.

Stormont, B.

B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205(1-3), 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sumpf, B.

B. Sumpf, P. Adamiec, M. Zorn, H. Wenzel, and G. Erbert, “Nearly diffraction limited tapered lasers at 675 nm with 1 W output power and conversion efficiencies above 30%,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 266–268 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Müller, O. B. Jensen, A. Unterhuber, T. Le, A. Stingl, K.-H. Hasler, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, P. E. Andersen, and P. M. Petersen, “Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12156–12163 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. H. Cheng, O. B. Jensen, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, and C. Pedersen, “Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(23), 4717–4721 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Szipöcs, R.

Tandon, S. N.

Taylor, J. R.

Theer, P.

Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P.

H. P. H. Cheng, O. B. Jensen, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, and C. Pedersen, “Efficient quasi-three-level Nd:YAG laser at 946 nm pumped by a tunable external cavity tapered diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(23), 4717–4721 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tillman, K. A.

Torizuka, K.

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 10 fs pulses from a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 6A), 3472–3473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trankle, G.

B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Tsuda, S.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and S. T. Cundiff, “High efficiency diode pumping of a saturable Bragg reflector-mode-locked Cr:LiSAF femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 454–464 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uemura, S.

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 10 fs pulses from a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 6A), 3472–3473 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

Valentine, G. J.

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, B. Agate, A. J. Kemp, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Highly compact and efficient femtosecond Cr: LiSAF lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(4), 360–368 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr(3+):LiSrAlF(6)laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22(21), 1639–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valster, A.

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Valentine, J. M. Hopkins, P. Loza-Alvarez, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, D. Burns, and A. Valster, “Ultralow-pump-threshold, femtosecond Cr(3+):LiSrAlF(6)laser pumped by a single narrow-stripe AlGaInP laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 22(21), 1639–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagenblast, P.

Wagenblast, P. C.

Wallenstein, R.

A. Robertson, R. Knappe, and R. Wallenstein, “Diode-pumped broadly tunable (809-910 nm) femtosecond Cr: LiSAF laser,” Opt. Commun. 147(4-6), 294–298 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Wenzel, H.

B. Sumpf, P. Adamiec, M. Zorn, H. Wenzel, and G. Erbert, “Nearly diffraction limited tapered lasers at 675 nm with 1 W output power and conversion efficiencies above 30%,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 266–268 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wintner, E.

Zhang, G.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, M.

B. Sumpf, P. Adamiec, M. Zorn, H. Wenzel, and G. Erbert, “Nearly diffraction limited tapered lasers at 675 nm with 1 W output power and conversion efficiencies above 30%,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 266–268 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, G. Zhang, M. Moser, M. A. Emanuel, R. J. Beach, J. A. Skidmore, and U. Keller, “High-average-power diode-pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 235–243 (1997).
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S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, and S. T. Cundiff, “High efficiency diode pumping of a saturable Bragg reflector-mode-locked Cr:LiSAF femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(11), 1538–1540 (1996).
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G. Lacayo, I. Hahnert, D. Klimm, P. Reiche, and W. Neumann, “Transmission electron microscope study of secondary phases in Cr3+: LiCaAlF6 single crystals,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(9), 1221–1227 (1999).
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D. Klimm and P. Reiche, “Ternary colquiriite type fluorides as laser hosts,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 145–152 (1999).
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F. Balembois, F. Falcoz, F. Kerboull, F. Druon, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Theoretical and experimental investigations of small-signal gain for a diode-pumped Q-Switched Cr:LiSAF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(2), 269–278 (1997).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (5)

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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Sumpf, K. H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and G. Trankle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, J. A. der Au, and U. Keller, “Mode-locking with slow and gast daturable absorbers - what's the difference?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(2), 159–168 (1998).
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S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and H. W. Newkirk, “Laser performance of LiSAIF6:Cr3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(3), 1051–1056 (1989).
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D. Klimm, G. Lacayo, and P. Reiche, “Growth of Cr:LiCaAlF6 and Cr:LiSrAlF6 by the Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 210(4), 683–693 (2000).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 10 fs pulses from a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 6A), 3472–3473 (2000).
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F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
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J. Klein and J. D. Kafka, “The Ti:Sapphire Laser: The flexible research tool,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 289 (2010).
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B. Agate, B. Stormont, A. J. Kemp, C. T. A. Brown, U. Keller, and W. Sibbett, “Simplified cavity designs for efficient and compact femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” Opt. Commun. 205(1-3), 207–213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hopkins, G. J. Valentine, W. Sibbett, J. A. der Au, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, and A. Valster, “Efficient, low-noise, SESAM-based femtosecond Cr3+: LiSrAlF6 laser,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 54–58 (1998).
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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (19)

P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3334–3336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Demirbas, K. H. Hong, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Sennaroglu, and F. X. Kärtner, “Low-cost cavity-dumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser producing >100 nJ pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 607–609 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1446–1448 (2010).
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L.-J. Chen, M. Y. Sander, and F. X. Kärtner, “Kerr-lens mode locking with minimum nonlinearity using gain-matched output couplers,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2916–2918 (2010).
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P. W. Roth, A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Direct diode-laser pumping of a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 304–306 (2011).
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U. Demirbas, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Generation of 15 nJ pulses from a highly efficient, low-cost multipass-cavity Cr3+:LiCAF laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 497–499 (2009).
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P. C. Wagenblast, U. Morgner, F. Grawert, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and M. J. Lederer, “Generation of sub-10-fs pulses from a Kerr-lens modelocked Cr3+:LiCAF laser oscillator using third order dispersion compensating double chirped mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1726–1728 (2002).
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Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Sumpf, P. Adamiec, M. Zorn, H. Wenzel, and G. Erbert, “Nearly diffraction limited tapered lasers at 675 nm with 1 W output power and conversion efficiencies above 30%,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(4), 266–268 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20(3), 277–278 (1966).
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U. Demirbas, A. Benedick, A. Sennaroglu, D. Li, J. Kim, J. G. Fujimoto, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond resolution timing jitter characterization of diode pumped femtosecond Cr:LiSAF lasers,” in CLEO, (San Jose, California, 2010).

B. Resan, E. Coadou, S. Petersen, A. Thomas, P. Walther, R. Viselga, J.-M. Heritier, J. Chilla, W. Tulloch, and A. Fry, “Ultrashort pulse Ti:sapphire oscillators pumped by optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) pump lasers ” in Proc. SPIE, 2008), 687116–687118.

E. Sorokin, “Solid-state materials for few-cycle pulse generation and amplification,” in Few-cycle laser pulse generation and its applications, F. X. Kärtner, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 3–71.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Left) Measured variation of optical output power with input current for the first tapered diode laser (TDL-1) at the diode holder temperatures of 15, 20 and 25 °C. Corresponding voltage values of TDL-1, for 25 C operation were also shown. (Right) Measured optical spectrum of the diode at 1.4 A diode current, and at the diode holder temperatures of 15, 20 and 25 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Beam waist, (b) far field and (c) near field profile for the slow axis of the first tapered diode laser (TDL-1) measured at 1 W of output power and at a cooling temperature of 15 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Beam waist, (b) far field and (c) near field profile for the slow axis of the second tapered diode laser (TDL-2) measured at 1 W of output power and at a cooling temperature of 15 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematics of cw and cw mode-locked Cr:LiCAF/LiSAF oscillators pumped by a single tapered diode laser (TDL-1). Double chirped mirrors (DCMs) and/or Gires–Tournois interferometer (GTI) mirrors are used for dispersion compensation. SBR: Saturable Bragg reflector. M1-M2: Curved pump mirrors with a ROC of 75 mm. OC: Output coupler. f1: Collecting & collimating aspheric lens. fz: Cylindrical collimating lens. f2: Focusing lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated small signal reflection, saturated reflection and group delay dispersion (GDD) curves for the 800 nm (left) and 850 nm (right) SBR. The calculated modulation depths were (0.6 ± 0.2) % and (0.8 ± 0.2) % for the 800 and 850 nm SBR, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Continuous-wave output power versus absorbed pump power for the single tapered diode pumped Cr:LiSAF (left) and Cr:LiCAF (right) lasers taken at various levels of output coupling between 0.5% and 3%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Left) Output beam profile from the Cr:LiSAF laser at the focus of a 10 cm lens. The measured spotsize (1/e2) distribution around the focus with the knife-edge technique in the z-axis (middle) and y axis (right). Least-squares fitting to the experimental data gave an M2 value of 1.05 and 1.02 for the z and y axis, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output power under cw operation at various levels of output coupling (OC) as a function of the temperature of the cooling water for the crystal holder for Cr:LiSAF (left) and Cr:LiCAF (right). The data is taken with the single TDL pumped Cr:Colquiriite laser system. The absorbed pump power was kept at a value of 1150 mW.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output power versus absorbed pump power (a), optical spectrum (b), and background-free intensity autocorrelation trace (c) for the 105 fs, 1.84 nJ pulses centered around 865 nm from the Cr:LiSAF laser. The laser featured a 3% output coupler and a repetition rate of 125.8 MHz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Output power versus absorbed pump power (a), optical spectrum (b), background-free intensity autocorrelation trace (c) for the 90 fs, 1.97 nJ pulses centered around 810 nm from the Cr:LiSAF laser. This cavity had an output coupler of 1% and a repetition rate of 97.9 MHz.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Output power versus absorbed pump power (a), optical spectrum (b), background-free intensity autocorrelation trace (c) for the 55 fs, 2.04 nJ pulses centered around 810 nm from the Cr:LiCAF laser. The laser had a 2% output coupler and a repetition rate of 106.6 MHz.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematics of cw and mode-locked Cr:LiCAF/LiSAF oscillators pumped by two tapered diode lasers (one from each side). PBS: Polarizing beam splitter cube. HWP: Half-wave plate.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Continuous-wave output versus absorbed pump power for the Cr:LiSAF (left) and Cr:LiCAF (right) lasers pumped by two TDLs, taken at various levels of output coupling between 0.5% and 3%.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Output power under cw operation at various levels of output coupling (OC) as a function of the temperature of the cooling water for the crystal holder for Cr:LiSAF (left) and Cr:LiCAF (right). The data is taken with the two TDL pumped Cr:Colquiriite laser system (one from each side), and the absorbed pump power was kept at a value of about 1800 mW.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Output power versus absorbed pump power (a), optical spectrum (b), background-free intensity autocorrelation trace (c) for the 220 fs, 5.4 nJ pulses centered around 807 nm from the Cr:LiCAF laser. The laser had a 3% output coupler and a repetition rate of 77 MHz.

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