Abstract

We report the lasing characteristics of a single ZnO nanosheet optically pumped by ultraviolet laser beam. The ZnO nanosheets were synthesized by a carbothermal chemical vapor deposition method. The ZnO nanosheets dispersed on a silica glass substrate were excited by the third-harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 355 nm, τ = 5 ns) and photoluminescence from a single ZnO nanosheet was observed. The observed emission spectra showed the obvious lasing characteristics having modal structure and threshold characteristics. The threshold power for lasing was measured to be 50 kW/cm2, which was much lower than 150 kW/cm2, the threshold power of the reference ZnO nanowire. It indicates that the ZnO nanosheet is a superior gain medium for an ultraviolet laser. The oscillation mechanism inside a ZnO nanosheet is attributed to the micro-cavity effect, based on the three-dimensional laser-field simulation.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (4)

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. H. Park and J. G. Park, “Synthesis of ultrawide ZnO nanosheets,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6(6), 1020–1023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(28), 13519–13522 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. C. Ryan and T. L. Reinecke, “Band-gap renormalization of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(15), 9615–9620 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, B.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. W.

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. J.

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. Y.

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choy, J. H.

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. H.

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. P.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Czekalla, C.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, R. Q.

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

L. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(28), 13519–13522 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashihata, M.

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, D. J.

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E. S.

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. W.

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

L. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(28), 13519–13522 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, M.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lv, C. G.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, M.

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Q.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muller, S.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, D.

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, J.

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nobis, T.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olmedo, M.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, A.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. G.

J. H. Park and J. G. Park, “Synthesis of ultrawide ZnO nanosheets,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6(6), 1020–1023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park and J. G. Park, “Synthesis of ultrawide ZnO nanosheets,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6(6), 1020–1023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. I.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, A.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, T. L.

J. C. Ryan and T. L. Reinecke, “Band-gap renormalization of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(15), 9615–9620 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ronning, C.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, S.

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, J. C.

J. C. Ryan and T. L. Reinecke, “Band-gap renormalization of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(15), 9615–9620 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Grund, R.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. T.

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shiojiri, M.

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, C.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Vugt, L. K.

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Won, J. H.

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C. X.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

L. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(28), 13519–13522 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(28), 13519–13522 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, B.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. R.

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, C.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

L. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(28), 13519–13522 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G. P.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zimmler, M. A.

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zou, B.

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zúñiga-Pérez, J.

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

E. S. P. Leong and S. F. Yu, “UV random lasing action in p-SiC(4H)/i-ZnO–SiO2 nanocomposite/n-ZnO:Al heterojunction diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(13), 1685–1688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. P. Zhu, C. X. Xu, J. Zhu, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Two-photon excited whispering-gallery mode ultraviolet laser from an individual ZnO microneedle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Jang, X. Chen, J. H. Won, J. H. Chung, D. J. Jang, Y. W. Kim, and J. H. Choy, “Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 043109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chu, M. Olmedo, Z. Yang, J. Kong, and J. Liu, “Electrically pumped ultraviolet ZnO diode lasers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, W. I. Park, and G.-C. Yi, “Random laser action in ZnO nanorod arrays embedded in ZnO epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3241–3243 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

R. Q. Guo, J. Nishimura, M. Matsumoto, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Catalyst-free synthesis of vertically-aligned ZnO nanowires by nanoparticle-assisted pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(4), 843–847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

R. Q. Guo, M. Matsumoto, T. Matsumoto, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Aligned growth of ZnO nanowires by NAPLD and their optical characterizations,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9671–9675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. H. Park and J. G. Park, “Synthesis of ultrawide ZnO nanosheets,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 6(6), 1020–1023 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Y. T. Shih, C. Y. Chiu, C. W. Chang, J. R. Yang, M. Shiojiri, and M. J. Chen, “Stimulated emission in highly (0001)-oriented ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition on the amorphous glass substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(9), H879–H883 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

L. Xu, Y. Guo, Q. Liao, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Morphological control of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(28), 13519–13522 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Lett. (1)

F. Wang, R. Liu, A. Pan, L. Cao, K. Cheng, B. Xue, G. Wang, Q. Meng, J. Li, Q. Li, Y. Wang, T. Wang, and B. Zou, “The optical properties of ZnO sheets electrodeposited on ITO glass,” Mater. Lett. 61(10), 2000–2003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

L. K. van Vugt, S. Rühle, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Phase-correlated nondirectional laser emission from the end facets of a ZnO nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2707–2711 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

J. C. Ryan and T. L. Reinecke, “Band-gap renormalization of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(15), 9615–9620 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

C. Czekalla, T. Nobis, A. Rahm, B. Cao, J. Zúñiga-Pérez, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc oxide micro- and nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(6), 1282–1293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. A. Zimmler, F. Capasso, S. Muller, and C. Ronning, “Optically pumped nanowire lasers: invited review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(2), 024001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986).

S. Adachi, Optical Constants of Crystalline and Amorphous Semiconductors: Numerical Data and Graphical Information (Kluwer Academic, 1999), Chap. D2.

M. K. Barnovski, Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, 1981).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) ZnO nanowires and (b) nanosheets. (c) TEM image and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of the ZnO nanosheet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) CCD image and (b) AFM image of a single ZnO nanowire lying on a silica glass substrate. (c) CCD image of the optically pumped nanowire, and PL from the red dotted circle was observed by the spectrometer. (d) PL spectra from the single ZnO nanowire for the different excitation power densities. (e) Plotted-peak intensities as a function of the excitation power density at 389.3 nm in Fig. 2 (d). The lasing threshold was estimated to be about 150 kW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) CCD image and (b) AFM image of a single ZnO nanosheet lying on a silica glass substrate. (c) CCD image of the optically pumped nanosheet, and PL from the red dotted circle was observed by the spectrometer. (d) PL spectra from the single ZnO nanosheet in changing the excitation power densities. (e) Plotted-peak intensities as a function of the excitation power density at red-broken line in Fig. 3 (d). The lasing threshold was estimated to be about 50 kW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation on electrical-field propagation inside a ZnO nanosheet placed on the x-y plane. The nanosheet has a thickness of 150 nm and the tip size of 100 nm. Incident light was planar wave with the wavelength of 385 nm linearly polarized in the z-axis. The light absorption was neglected for the observation of the propagation.

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