Abstract

We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a highly sensitive salinity sensor using a polyimide-coated Hi-Bi photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer based on the coating swelling induced radial pressure. This is the first time to exploit fiber coating induced pressure effect for salinity sensing. The achieved salinity sensitivity is 0.742 nm/(mol/L), which is 45 times more sensitive than that of a polyimide-coated fiber Bragg grating. A bare fiber Bragg grating is incorporated into the fiber loop for temperature compensation.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18501–18512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, M. J. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. W. Qian, and S. L. He, “Low-cost high-performance fiber-optic pH sensor based on thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22296–22302 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Y. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Gentleman and K. S. Booksh, “Determining salinity using a multimode fiber optic surface plasmon resonance dip-probe,” Talanta 68(3), 504–515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Falate, O. Frazão, G. Rego, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Santos, “Refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5066–5072 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim and J. U. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4490–4495 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, “Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 299–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alameh, K.

L. V. Nguyen, M. Vasiliev, and K. Alameh, “Three-Wave Fiber Fabry–Pérot Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Water Salinity of Seawater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(7), 450–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Au, H. Y.

C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Au, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “High-sensitivity salinity sensor realized with photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 77531B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Booksh, K. S.

D. J. Gentleman and K. S. Booksh, “Determining salinity using a multimode fiber optic surface plasmon resonance dip-probe,” Talanta 68(3), 504–515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calixto, S.

Chen, K. S.

J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. Y.

L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. C.

Childs, P. A.

Choi, H. Y.

Chow, Y. T.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cong, J.

J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-Herrera, N.

N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

Eggleton, B. J.

Esteban, O.

N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fabris, J. L.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, O. Frazão, G. Rego, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Santos, “Refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5066–5072 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falate, R.

Farrell, G.

Ferreira, L. A.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, O. Frazão, G. Rego, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Santos, “Refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5066–5072 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, “Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 299–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

Fu, L. B.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gentleman, D. J.

D. J. Gentleman and K. S. Booksh, “Determining salinity using a multimode fiber optic surface plasmon resonance dip-probe,” Talanta 68(3), 504–515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González-Cano, A.

N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

Guan, B. O.

C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Au, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “High-sensitivity salinity sensor realized with photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 77531B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B.-O.

Guo, J. T.

Hale, A.

He, S. L.

Jin, S. Z.

Jin, W.

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamikawachi, R. C.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Kerbage, C.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khijwania, S. K.

Kim, D. H.

Kim, M. J.

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Haitre, M.

N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Liao, Y. B.

Lu, C.

Lu, P.

L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mathew, J.

Men, L. Q.

L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Muller, M.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Navarrete, M. C.

N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L. V.

L. V. Nguyen, M. Vasiliev, and K. Alameh, “Three-Wave Fiber Fabry–Pérot Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Water Salinity of Seawater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(7), 450–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, D. A.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, “Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 299–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Possetti, G. R. C.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prevedello, C. L.

G. R. C. Possetti, R. C. Kamikawachi, C. L. Prevedello, M. Muller, and J. L. Fabris, “Salinity measurement in water environment with a long period grating based interferometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 034003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J. W.

Qian, W. W.

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, L. Reekie, Y. T. Chow, and J. P. Dakin, “Optical in-fiber grating high pressure sensor,” Electron. Lett. 29(4), 398–399 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rego, G.

Russell, P. St. J.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Falate, O. Frazão, G. Rego, J. L. Fabris, and J. L. Santos, “Refractometric sensor based on a phase-shifted long-period fiber grating,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5066–5072 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazão, and J. L. Santos, “Fiber Bragg grating sensing system for simultaneous measurement of salinity and temperature,” Opt. Eng. 43(2), 299–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, Y.

Shao, L. Y.

Shum, P.

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sotskaya, L.

Sotsky, A.

Statkiewicz, G.

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M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
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Tse, M. L. V.

M. L. V. Tse, H. Y. Tam, L. B. Fu, B. K. Thomas, L. Dong, C. Lu, and P. K. A. Wai, “Fusion splicing holey fibers and single-mode fibers: A simple method to reduce loss and increase strength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 164–166 (2009).
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G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004).
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C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Au, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “High-sensitivity salinity sensor realized with photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 77531B (2011).
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Zhang, A. P.

Zhang, L.

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J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002).
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W. W. Qian, C. L. Zhao, S. L. He, X. Y. Dong, S. Q. Zhang, Z. X. Zhang, S. Z. Jin, J. T. Guo, and H. F. Wei, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor based on an alcohol-filled photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1548–1550 (2011).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. Y. Dong, H. Y. Tam, and P. Shum, “Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151113 (2007).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

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[CrossRef]

L. V. Nguyen, M. Vasiliev, and K. Alameh, “Three-Wave Fiber Fabry–Pérot Interferometer for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Water Salinity of Seawater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(7), 450–452 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
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L. Q. Men, P. Lu, and Q. Y. Chen, “A multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous salinity and temperature measurement,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(5), 053107 (2008).
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N. Díaz-Herrera, O. Esteban, M. C. Navarrete, M. Le Haitre, and A. González-Cano, “In situ salinity measurements in seawater with a fibre-optic probe,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 2227–2232 (2006).
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Opt. Commun.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbańczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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J. Cong, X. M. Zhang, K. S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Fiber optic Bragg grating sensor based on hydrogels for measuring salinity,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(3), 487–490 (2002).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the water salinity measurement setup. The inset shows the photograph of the polyimide-coated PM-PCF salinity sensor coiled into 1.8-cm diameter loops. BBS: broadband light source; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. (b) The output spectrum of the sensor head: a Sagnac interferometer combined with a fiber Bragg grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic response of the sensor to change in water salinity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectra at different salinities for measurement 1. (b) Wavelength shift as a function of water salinity for three measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra at different temperatures. (b) Wavelength shift as a function of temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Demonstration of temperature compensation for salinity measurements.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ ΔT ΔS ]= 1 K S, Sagnac K T, FBG [ K S, Sagnac K T, Sagnac 0 K T, FBG ][ Δ λ FBG Δ λ Sagnac ],
[ ΔT ΔS ]= 1 0.742×0.0106 [ 0.742 0.0149 0 0.0106 ][ Δ λ FBG Δ λ Sagnac ],

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