Abstract

Fresnel zone plates (450 nm thick Au, 25 nm outermost zone width) used as objective lenses in a full field transmission reached a spatial resolution better than 20 nm and 1.5% efficiency with 8 keV photons. Zernike phase contrast was also realized without compromising the resolution. These are very significant achievements in the rapid progress of high-aspect-ratio zone plate fabrication by combined electron beam lithography and electrodeposition.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. G. Margaritondo, Y. Hwu, and J. H. Je, “Synchrotron light in medical and materials science radiology,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 27, 1–40 (2004).
  2. X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft X-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).
  24. S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft X-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

G. Margaritondo, Y. Hwu, and J. H. Je, “Synchrotron light in medical and materials science radiology,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 27, 1–40 (2004).

2002

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altissimo, M.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft X-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assoufid, L.

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Businaro, L.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerrina, F.

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. H.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. J.

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. D.

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft X-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F. R.

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. H.

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. T.

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. Y.

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. C.

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. T.

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. Y.

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. Y.

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, C. C.

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. C.

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Chiu, C. W.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. S.

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. C.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cojoc, D.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Carlo, F.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Divan, R.

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duewer, F. W.

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, M.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fabrizio, E. D.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feser, M.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fezzaa, K.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

Gajdosik, V.

Guttmann, P.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, P. C.

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hua, T. E.

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, F. K.

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, C. S.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwu, Y.

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Margaritondo, Y. Hwu, and J. H. Je, “Synchrotron light in medical and materials science radiology,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 27, 1–40 (2004).

Hwu, Y. K.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilavsky, J.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Je, J. H.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Margaritondo, Y. Hwu, and J. H. Je, “Synchrotron light in medical and materials science radiology,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 27, 1–40 (2004).

Jemian, P.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, S. T.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeng, U. S.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaulich, B.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kempson, I. M.

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Lai, B.

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S. F.

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y. H.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. F.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. H.

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W. K.

Lee, W.-K.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, Q.

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. R.

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, K. S.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. Y.

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H. M.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, I. K.

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. J.

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D. G.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T. N.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Long, G. G.

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lucchesi, J.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancini, D. C.

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Margaritondo, G.

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Margaritondo, Y. Hwu, and J. H. Je, “Synchrotron light in medical and materials science radiology,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 27, 1–40 (2004).

Moldovan, N.

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petibois, C.

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

Romanato, F.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarkar, S. S.

S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, G.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, E.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, H. S.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shew, B. Y.

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H. P. D.

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiue, J.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solak, H. H.

S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. F.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steuernagel, A.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, C. I.

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M. T.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Tsang, K. L.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaccari, L.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, J. F.

S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. H.

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Wang, C. L.

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Y.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, S.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H. J.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Wu, M. K.

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. R.

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. S.

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Yi, J.

Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, W. K. Lee, C. L. Wang, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, V. Gajdosik, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard x-ray Zernike microscopy reaches 30 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1269–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, J. M.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

Yin, G. C.

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W.

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

X. Cai, H. H. Chen, C. L. Wang, S. T. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. C. Chien, Y. Y. Chen, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Imaging the cellular uptake of tiopronin-modified gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 401(3), 809–816 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Chien, C. H. Wang, C. L. Wang, E. R. Li, K. H. Lee, Y. Hwu, C. Y. Lin, S. J. Chang, C. S. Yang, C. Petibois, and G. Margaritondo, “Synchrotron microangiography studies of angiogenesis in mice with microemulsions and gold nanoparticles,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(6), 2109–2116 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. C. Hsu, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. L. Wang, S. R. Wu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Dynamical growth behavior of copper clusters during electrodeposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Yin, Y. F. Song, M. T. Tang, F. R. Chen, K. S. Liang, F. W. Duewer, M. Feser, W. Yun, and H. P. D. Shieh, “30 nm resolution x-ray imaging at 8 keV using third order diffraction of a zone plate lens objective in a transmission microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chu, J. M. Yi, F. De Carlo, Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, H. J. Wu, C. L. Wang, J. Y. Wang, C. J. Liu, C. H. Wang, S. R. Wu, C. C. Chien, Y. Hwu, A. Tkachuk, W. Yun, M. Feser, K. S. Liang, C. S. Yang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Hard-x-ray microscopy with Fresnel zone plates reaches 40 nm Rayleigh resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103119 (2008).

J. Nanobiotechnology

H. H. Chen, C. C. Chien, C. Petibois, C. L. Wang, Y. S. Chu, S. F. Lai, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Chen, X. Cai, I. M. Kempson, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy,” J. Nanobiotechnology 9(1), 14 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

T. N. Lo, Y. T. Chen, C. W. Chiu, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, I. K. Lin, C. I. Su, W. D. Chang, Y. Hwu, B. Y. Shew, C. C. Chiang, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “E-beam lithography and electrodeposition fabrication of thick nanostructured devices,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(10), 3172–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yi, Y. S. Chu, Y. T. Chen, T. Y. Chen, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “High-resolution hard-X-ray microscopy using second-order zone plate diffraction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(23), 232001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Struct. Biol.

S. Vogt, G. Schneider, A. Steuernagel, J. Lucchesi, E. Schulze, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, “X-ray microscopic studies of the drosophila dosage compensation complex,” J. Struct. Biol. 132(2), 123–132 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat.

Y. F. Song, C. H. Chang, C. Y. Liu, S. H. Chang, U. S. Jeng, Y. H. Lai, D. G. Liu, S. C. Chung, K. L. Tsang, G. C. Yin, J. F. Lee, H. S. Sheu, M. T. Tang, C. S. Hwang, Y. K. Hwu, and K. S. Liang, “X-ray beamlines for structural studies at the NSRRC superconducting wavelength shifter,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 14(4), 320–325 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, C. W. Chiu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. J. Liu, S. R. Wu, S. T. Jeng, C. C. Yang, J. Shiue, C. H. Chen, Y. Hwu, G. C. Yin, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio Fresnel zone plates by e-beam lithography and electroplating,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 170–175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng.

M. Altissimo, F. Romanato, L. Vaccari, L. Businaro, D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, S. Cabrini, and E. D. Fabrizio, “X-ray lithography fabrication of a zone plate for X-rays in the range from 15 to 30 keV,” Microelectron. Eng. 61–62(1-3), 173–177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Sarkar, H. H. Solak, J. Raabe, C. David, and J. F. van der Veen, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates with 25 nm zone width using extreme ultraviolet holography,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(5-8), 854–858 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol.

L. Liu, G. Liu, Y. Xiong, J. Chen, W. Li, and Y. Tian, “Fabrication of X-ray imaging zone plates by e-beam and X-ray lithography,” Microsyst. Technol. 16(8-9), 1315–1321 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

Y. T. Chen, T. N. Lo, Y. S. Chu, J. Yi, C. J. Liu, J. Y. Wang, C. L. Wang, C. W. Chiu, T. E. Hua, Y. Hwu, Q. Shen, G. C. Yin, K. S. Liang, H. M. Lin, J. H. Je, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field hard x-ray microscopy below 30 nm: a challenging nanofabrication achievement,” Nanotechnology 19(39), 395302 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

Q. Shen, W.-K. Lee, K. Fezzaa, Y. S. Chu, F. De Carlo, P. Jemian, J. Ilavsky, M. Erdmann, and G. G. Long, “Dedicated full-field X-ray imaging beamline at Advanced Photon Source,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582(1), 77–79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

F. K. Huang, W. C. Chen, S. F. Lai, C. J. Liu, C. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, H. H. Chen, T. E. Hua, Y. Y. Cheng, M. K. Wu, Y. Hwu, C. S. Yang, and G. Margaritondo, “Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(2), 469–482 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Rehbein, S. Heim, P. Guttmann, S. Werner, and G. Schneider, “Ultrahigh-resolution soft-X-ray microscopy with zone plates in high orders of diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(11), 110801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riv. Nuovo Cim.

G. Margaritondo, Y. Hwu, and J. H. Je, “Synchrotron light in medical and materials science radiology,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 27, 1–40 (2004).

SPIE

R. Divan, D. C. Mancini, N. Moldovan, B. Lai, L. Assoufid, Q. Leonard, and F. Cerrina, “Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft X-ray lithography,” SPIE 4783, 82–91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics layout of our full-field hard-X-ray transmission microscope using a ZP as an objective lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of a zone plate with ∆r = 25 nm and a thickness of 500nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TXM images of a test pattern with innermost Au features of 30 nm pitch, taken using one of our best ZPs (25 nm outermost zone width) as well as with other ZPs with larger (45, 40, 30) outermost zone widths. Bars: 2 µm. (b) The power spectrum analysis of these images showsthe highest spatial frequency corresponding to the minimum-size features detectable above the noise, <20 nm for the 25 nm ZP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Images of the same test pattern as in Fig. 3 with (right) and without (left) Zernike phase contrast using the 25 nm ZP. The brightness difference between bright and dark areas indicates a contrast ratio ~12%. Bars: 5 µm. (b) A power spectrum analysis confirms a resolution <20 nm.

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