Abstract

A single-exposure quantitative method of x-ray phase contrast imaging, suitable for animal in vivo observations, is described and shown experimentally both for a known static sample and an ex vivo biological airway. The ability to acquire the desired information within a single exposure is important for dynamic samples, as is sufficient sensitivity to reveal small variations in the composition or thickness of such a sample. This approach satisfies both these needs by analyzing how a reference grid pattern is deformed by the presence of the sample, similar to a Shack-Hartmann sensor. By resolving the shift of the pattern into horizontal and vertical components, a quantitative phase depth map is recovered, sensitive to both sharp edges as well as low phase gradients.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

2010 (4)

H. H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, R. Kopace, A. F. Stein, and V. Pai, “Single-shot x-ray differential phase-contrast and diffraction imaging using two-dimensional transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1932–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Irvine, K. S. Morgan, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Assessment of the use of a diffuser in propagation-based x-ray phase contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13478–13491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Measurement of hard x-ray coherence in the presence of a rotating random-phase-screen diffuser,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Fouras, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. Hourigan, “The past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bon, G. Maucort, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13080–13094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, R. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S22–S26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, “Phase tomography by x-ray Talbot interferometry for biological imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(6A), 5254–5262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Briedis, K. K. W. Siu, D. M. Paganin, K. M. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Analyser-based mammography using single-image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(15), 3599–3611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, J. E. Gillam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, “An improvement to the diffraction-enhanced imaging method that permits imaging of dynamical systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

D. Paganin, T. E. Gureyev, K. M. Pavlov, R. A. Lewis, and M. Kitchen, “Phase retrieval using coherent imaging systems with linear transfer functions,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 87–105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Lewis, “Medical phase contrast x-ray imaging: current status and future prospects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(16), 3573–3583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X-ray wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Mayo and B. Sexton, “Refractive microlens array for wave-front analysis in the medium to hard x-ray range,” Opt. Lett. 29(8), 866–868 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, “Phase retrieval by demodulation of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” Opt. Commun. 215(4-6), 285–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. H. Massig, “Deformation measurement on specular surfaces by simple means,” Opt. Eng. 40(10), 2315–2318 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

V. Aksenov, V. Banakh, and O. Tikhomirova, “Potential and vortex features of optical speckle fields and visualization of wave-front singularities,” Appl. Opt. 37(21), 4536–4540 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Lale, J. D. T. Mason, and N. S. Jones, “Mucociliary transport and its assessment: a review,” Clin. Otolaryngol. Allied Sci. 23(5), 388–396 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Ingal and E. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. G. Lane and M. Tallon, “Wave-front reconstruction using a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Appl. Opt. 31(32), 6902–6908 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Slatkin, P. Spanne, F. A. Dilmanian, and M. Sandborg, “Microbeam radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 19(6), 1395–1400 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based tomography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72(1), 156–160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. Förster, K. Goetz, and P. Zaumseil, “Double crystal diffractometry for the characterization of targets for laser fusion experiments,” Krist. Tech. 15(8), 937–945 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

1965 (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1900 (1)

J. Hartmann, “Bemerkungen über den Bau und die Justirung von Spektrographen,” Z. Instrumentenkd 20, 47 (1900).

Aksenov, V.

Arnison, M. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banakh, V.

Barrett, R.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baruchel, J.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beliaevskaya, E.

V. Ingal and E. Beliaevskaya, “X-ray plane-wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(11), 2314–2317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, E. E.

Bon, P.

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, R.

K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, R. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S22–S26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boucher, R. C.

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briedis, D.

D. Briedis, K. K. W. Siu, D. M. Paganin, K. M. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Analyser-based mammography using single-image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(15), 3599–3611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucourt, S.

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X-ray wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

C. Kottler, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “A two-directional approach for grating based differential phase contrast imaging using hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1175–1181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, Y.

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, “Phase retrieval by demodulation of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” Opt. Commun. 215(4-6), 285–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cloetens, P.

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K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
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D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
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P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
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T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
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A. Fouras, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. Hourigan, “The past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102009 (2009).
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Jacobsen, C.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
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A. Fouras, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. Hourigan, “The past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102009 (2009).
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M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
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K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, J. E. Gillam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, “An improvement to the diffraction-enhanced imaging method that permits imaging of dynamical systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 169–174 (2005).
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Larkin, K. G.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
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M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
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P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X-ray wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
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A. Fouras, M. J. Kitchen, S. Dubsky, R. A. Lewis, S. B. Hooper, and K. Hourigan, “The past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102009 (2009).
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M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
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D. Briedis, K. K. W. Siu, D. M. Paganin, K. M. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Analyser-based mammography using single-image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(15), 3599–3611 (2005).
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K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, J. E. Gillam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, “An improvement to the diffraction-enhanced imaging method that permits imaging of dynamical systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 169–174 (2005).
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D. Paganin, T. E. Gureyev, K. M. Pavlov, R. A. Lewis, and M. Kitchen, “Phase retrieval using coherent imaging systems with linear transfer functions,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 87–105 (2004).
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Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
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Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
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Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
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A. M. Lale, J. D. T. Mason, and N. S. Jones, “Mucociliary transport and its assessment: a review,” Clin. Otolaryngol. Allied Sci. 23(5), 388–396 (1998).
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T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
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D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
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M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X-ray wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
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D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
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Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
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A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, “Phase tomography by x-ray Talbot interferometry for biological imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(6A), 5254–5262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Morgan, K.

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, K. S.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Quantitative x-ray phase-contrast imaging using a single grating of comparable pitch to sample feature size,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 55–57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Measurement of hard x-ray coherence in the presence of a rotating random-phase-screen diffuser,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Irvine, K. S. Morgan, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Assessment of the use of a diffuser in propagation-based x-ray phase contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13478–13491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, R. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S22–S26 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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Nakamura, T.

Naulleau, P. P.

P. Mercère, M. Idir, P. Zeitoun, X. Levecq, G. Dovillaire, S. Bucourt, D. Douillet, K. A. Goldberg, P. P. Naulleau, and S. Rekawa, “X-ray wavefront Hartmann Sensor,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 819–822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nesterets, Ya.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. David, B. Nohammer, H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ouchi, C.

Paganin, D.

D. Paganin, T. E. Gureyev, K. M. Pavlov, R. A. Lewis, and M. Kitchen, “Phase retrieval using coherent imaging systems with linear transfer functions,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 87–105 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D. M.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Quantitative x-ray phase-contrast imaging using a single grating of comparable pitch to sample feature size,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 55–57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Measurement of hard x-ray coherence in the presence of a rotating random-phase-screen diffuser,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Irvine, K. S. Morgan, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Assessment of the use of a diffuser in propagation-based x-ray phase contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13478–13491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, R. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S22–S26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Briedis, K. K. W. Siu, D. M. Paganin, K. M. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Analyser-based mammography using single-image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(15), 3599–3611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pai, V.

Parsons, D. W.

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, R. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S22–S26 (2008).
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M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
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D. Briedis, K. K. W. Siu, D. M. Paganin, K. M. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Analyser-based mammography using single-image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(15), 3599–3611 (2005).
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K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, J. E. Gillam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, “An improvement to the diffraction-enhanced imaging method that permits imaging of dynamical systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 169–174 (2005).
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T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
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A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
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P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J. P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
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Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
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Siew, M. L. L.

M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
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Siu, K. K. W.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Quantitative x-ray phase-contrast imaging using a single grating of comparable pitch to sample feature size,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 55–57 (2011).
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K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Measurement of hard x-ray coherence in the presence of a rotating random-phase-screen diffuser,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Irvine, K. S. Morgan, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Assessment of the use of a diffuser in propagation-based x-ray phase contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13478–13491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, R. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S22–S26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Briedis, K. K. W. Siu, D. M. Paganin, K. M. Pavlov, and R. A. Lewis, “Analyser-based mammography using single-image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(15), 3599–3611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, J. E. Gillam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, “An improvement to the diffraction-enhanced imaging method that permits imaging of dynamical systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. N. Slatkin, P. Spanne, F. A. Dilmanian, and M. Sandborg, “Microbeam radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 19(6), 1395–1400 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, N. I.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, V. Kohn, S. Kuznetsov, and I. Schelokov, “On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent high-energy synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(12), 5486–5492 (1995).
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D. N. Slatkin, P. Spanne, F. A. Dilmanian, and M. Sandborg, “Microbeam radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 19(6), 1395–1400 (1992).
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Stevenson, A. W.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Irvine, K. S. Morgan, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Assessment of the use of a diffuser in propagation-based x-ray phase contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13478–13491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Measurement of hard x-ray coherence in the presence of a rotating random-phase-screen diffuser,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
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A. Momose, W. Yashiro, Y. Takeda, Y. Suzuki, and T. Hattori, “Phase tomography by x-ray Talbot interferometry for biological imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(6A), 5254–5262 (2006).
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K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Measurement of hard x-ray coherence in the presence of a rotating random-phase-screen diffuser,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Irvine, K. S. Morgan, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Assessment of the use of a diffuser in propagation-based x-ray phase contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13478–13491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Teague, M. R.

Teshima, T.

Tian, Y.

Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirova, O.

Uesugi, K.

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Irvine, K. S. Morgan, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Assessment of the use of a diffuser in propagation-based x-ray phase contrast imaging,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13478–13491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, S. C. Irvine, Y. Suzuki, K. Uesugi, A. Takeuchi, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “Measurement of hard x-ray coherence in the presence of a rotating random-phase-screen diffuser,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 216–225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, R. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S22–S26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, J. E. Gillam, R. A. Lewis, K. Uesugi, and N. Yagi, “An improvement to the diffraction-enhanced imaging method that permits imaging of dynamical systems,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 548(1-2), 169–174 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, S.

M. D. de Jonge, B. Hornberger, C. Holzner, D. Legnini, D. Paterson, I. McNulty, C. Jacobsen, and S. Vogt, “Quantitative phase imaging with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. J.

M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wattellier, B.

Weitkamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wen, H. H.

Wilkins, S.

Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, D. E. Myers, Ya. Nesterets, D. M. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Refracting Röntgen’s rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(10), 102005 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Paganin, S. C. Mayo, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, and S. W. Wilkins, “Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 33–40 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays,” Nature 373(6515), 595–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, I.

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Y. Liu, B. Chen, E. Li, J. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. Tian, K. Nugent, P. Zhu, and Z. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, N.

M. Donnelley, K. K. W. Siu, K. S. Morgan, W. Skinner, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and D. W. Parsons, “A new technique to examine individual pollutant particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachea,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(6), 719–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, D. W. Parsons, M. Donnelley, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, and K. K. W. Siu, “Optimising coherence properties for phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) to reveal airway surface liquid (ASL) as an airway health measure,” IFMBE Proc. 25, 135–138 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Parsons, K. Morgan, M. Donnelley, A. Fouras, J. Crosbie, I. Williams, R. C. Boucher, K. Uesugi, N. Yagi, and K. K. W. Siu, “High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI),” J. Anat. 213(2), 217–227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Kitchen, K. M. Pavlov, S. B. Hooper, D. J. Vine, K. K. W. Siu, M. J. Wallace, M. L. L. Siew, N. Yagi, K. Uesugi, and R. A. Lewis, “Simultaneous acquisition of dual analyser-based phase contrast X-ray images for small animal imaging,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3Suppl), S49–S53 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up for quantitative single-exposure x-ray phase contrast imaging using a single attenuation grid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of interrogation window alignment where the red color table is the grid-only image and the blue color table is the grid-and-sample interrogation window. The interrogation window is a) as observed in place where the sample has shifted the reference pattern, b) shifted by cross-correlation to align with the reference grid-only image to provide c) shift S, resolved into Sx and Sy . (Note that both the required shift and interrogation window size are exaggerated here for clarity). This process is repeated at each position (x,y) in the grid-and-sample image to produce Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Sx and b) Sy , the differential phase contrast images of two 1.5 mm diameter Perspex spheres (Goodfellows ME306810/3 PMMA 1.5mm spheres, +−5% tolerance in diameter) showing the perpendicular reference pattern shift components. These were imaged with a 64 μm period gold grid, 0.18 μm pixel size, 25 keV synchrotron x-rays and 1 m sample-to-detector propagation, with 900 ms exposure. A 30 pixel wide interrogation window was used, stepping in half-pixel increments, taking just under 2 hours on a standard desktop computer for a 1336 × 920 pixel image. The region of interest relative to the spheres is shown inset in a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Reconstructed projected thickness map T from thickness gradients in Fig. 3, b) Reconstructed thickness profile (along blue dotted line in a)), plotted with the theoretical thickness profile across two perfect spheres and c) Reconstructed thickness as a surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The right side of an ex vivo mouse 1mm tracheal airway (see inset of b)), imaged using a) propagation-based PCXI, with 1m propagation and b) the associated reconstructed thickness using the TIE single image phase retrieval, c) Shift image from the grid method of imaging and d) the associated reconstructed thickness using Fourier integration by Eq. (4). Intensity profiles are taken across a single row of pixels in the middle of the image.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tan θ x = S x / z and tan θ y = S y / z ,
θ x = 1 k φ x and  θ y = 1 k φ y .
T x = 1 δ tan 1 ( S x z ) and  T y = 1 δ tan 1 ( S y z ) .
( T / x ) = i k x ( T ) ,
( T ( x , y ) ) = 1 2 π T ( x , y ) e i ( k x x + k y y ) d x d y ,
T = 1 [ ( T / x + i T / y ) i k x k y ] .
T x = 1 δ tan 1 ( a z ) .

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