Abstract

The discovery of single-molecule sensitivity via surface-enhanced Raman scattering on resonantly excited noble metal nanoparticles has brought an increasing interest in its applications to the molecule detection and identification. Periodic gold bowtie nanostructures have recently been shown to give a large enhancement factor sufficient for single molecule detection. In this work, we simulate the plasmon resonance for periodic gold bowtie nanostructures. The difference between the dipole and the quadrupole resonances is described by examining the magnitude and phase of electric field, the bound surface charge, and the polarization. The gap size dependence of the field enhancement can be interpreted by considering cavity field enhancement. Also, additional enhancement is obtained through the long-range collective photonic effect when the bowtie array periodicity matches the resonance wavelength.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the use of plasmonic nanoparticle pairs as a plasmon ruler: the dependence of the near-field dipole plasmon coupling on nanoparticle size and shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, “One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(8), 081102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, and G. C. Schatz, “Multipolar excitation in triangular nanoprisms,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(11), 114713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Mosier-Boss and S. H. Lieberman, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate composed of chemically modified gold colloid particles immobilized on magnetic microparticles,” Anal. Chem. 77(4), 1031–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403(1-3), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kong, S. L. Yuan, Y. X. Sun, and Z. Y. Yu, “Self-assembled monolayer of o-aminothiophenol on Fe(110) surface: a combined study by electrochemistry, in situ STM, and molecular simulations,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 272–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, L. Kelly, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, “Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters,” J. Cluster Sci. 10(2), 295–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna, towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bjerneld, E. J.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Börjesson, L.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the use of plasmonic nanoparticle pairs as a plasmon ruler: the dependence of the near-field dipole plasmon coupling on nanoparticle size and shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eres, G.

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Gaddis, A. L.

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

Grober, R. D.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna, towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, “One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(8), 081102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

Hatab, N. A.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsueh, C. H.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, I.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, P. K.

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, L. Kelly, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, “Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters,” J. Cluster Sci. 10(2), 295–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, R.

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, L.

T. Jensen, L. Kelly, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, “Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters,” J. Cluster Sci. 10(2), 295–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kong, D. S.

D. S. Kong, S. L. Yuan, Y. X. Sun, and Z. Y. Yu, “Self-assembled monolayer of o-aminothiophenol on Fe(110) surface: a combined study by electrochemistry, in situ STM, and molecular simulations,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 272–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, A.

T. Jensen, L. Kelly, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, “Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters,” J. Cluster Sci. 10(2), 295–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. H.

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieberman, S. H.

P. A. Mosier-Boss and S. H. Lieberman, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate composed of chemically modified gold colloid particles immobilized on magnetic microparticles,” Anal. Chem. 77(4), 1031–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

Mahmoud, M.

C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the use of plasmonic nanoparticle pairs as a plasmon ruler: the dependence of the near-field dipole plasmon coupling on nanoparticle size and shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

Meyrath, T. P.

Mirkin, C. A.

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mosier-Boss, P. A.

P. A. Mosier-Boss and S. H. Lieberman, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate composed of chemically modified gold colloid particles immobilized on magnetic microparticles,” Anal. Chem. 77(4), 1031–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murali, R.

C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the use of plasmonic nanoparticle pairs as a plasmon ruler: the dependence of the near-field dipole plasmon coupling on nanoparticle size and shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I. Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prober, D. E.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna, towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, M. A.

K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, and G. C. Schatz, “Multipolar excitation in triangular nanoprisms,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(11), 114713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Retterer, S. T.

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403(1-3), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, and G. C. Schatz, “Multipolar excitation in triangular nanoprisms,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(11), 114713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jensen, L. Kelly, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, “Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters,” J. Cluster Sci. 10(2), 295–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schoelkopf, R. J.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna, towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

Seal, K.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuford, K. L.

K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, and G. C. Schatz, “Multipolar excitation in triangular nanoprisms,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(11), 114713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, K.-H.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. X.

D. S. Kong, S. L. Yuan, Y. X. Sun, and Z. Y. Yu, “Self-assembled monolayer of o-aminothiophenol on Fe(110) surface: a combined study by electrochemistry, in situ STM, and molecular simulations,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 272–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabor, C.

C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the use of plasmonic nanoparticle pairs as a plasmon ruler: the dependence of the near-field dipole plasmon coupling on nanoparticle size and shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.-H.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, “One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(8), 081102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. Y.

D. S. Kong, S. L. Yuan, Y. X. Sun, and Z. Y. Yu, “Self-assembled monolayer of o-aminothiophenol on Fe(110) surface: a combined study by electrochemistry, in situ STM, and molecular simulations,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 272–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S. L.

D. S. Kong, S. L. Yuan, Y. X. Sun, and Z. Y. Yu, “Self-assembled monolayer of o-aminothiophenol on Fe(110) surface: a combined study by electrochemistry, in situ STM, and molecular simulations,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 272–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, X.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, “One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(8), 081102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, K.

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, “One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(8), 081102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. G.

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, S.

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403(1-3), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

P. A. Mosier-Boss and S. H. Lieberman, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate composed of chemically modified gold colloid particles immobilized on magnetic microparticles,” Anal. Chem. 77(4), 1031–1037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna, towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

S. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce giant enhancements in electromagnetic fields,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 403(1-3), 62–67 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

K. Zhao, H. Xu, B. Gu, and Z. Zhang, “One-dimensional arrays of nanoshell dimers for single molecule spectroscopy via surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(8), 081102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, and G. C. Schatz, “Multipolar excitation in triangular nanoprisms,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(11), 114713 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cluster Sci.

T. Jensen, L. Kelly, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, “Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters,” J. Cluster Sci. 10(2), 295–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the use of plasmonic nanoparticle pairs as a plasmon ruler: the dependence of the near-field dipole plasmon coupling on nanoparticle size and shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jain, W. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: a plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Hatab, C. H. Hsueh, A. L. Gaddis, S. T. Retterer, J. H. Li, G. Eres, Z. Zhang, and B. Gu, “Free-standing optical gold bowtie nanoantenna with variable gap size for enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(12), 4952–4955 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xu, K. Seal, X. Xu, I. Ivanov, C. H. Hsueh, N. A. Hatab, L. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Cheng, B. Gu, Z. Zhang, and J. Shen, “High tunability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering response with a metal-multiferroic composite,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1265–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, E. J. Bjerneld, M. Käll, and L. Börjesson, “Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(21), 4357–4360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294(5548), 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci.

D. S. Kong, S. L. Yuan, Y. X. Sun, and Z. Y. Yu, “Self-assembled monolayer of o-aminothiophenol on Fe(110) surface: a combined study by electrochemistry, in situ STM, and molecular simulations,” Surf. Sci. 573(2), 272–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics Fundamentals and Applications (Springer Science + Business Media LLC, New York, 2007), pp. 163–164.

http://www.lumerical.com

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Orlando, FL, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics showing (a) a truncated bowtie on the x-y plane and (b) the cross-section of Si/Cr/Au bowtie/p-aminothiolphenol nanostructure on the x-z plane. A polarized plane wave is illuminated from the bowtie side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Maximum E intensity enhancement at the apex and on the bowtie surface and (b) the reflectance as functions of the illumination wavelength, λ, at different gap sizes. The width of the truncated apex, w, is 20 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The E intensity enhancement profiles on the plane containing the bowtie surface for (a) λ = 655 nm with dipole resonance and (b) λ = 540 nm with quadrupole resonance. The color bar is logarithmic-scale and limited to –1 to 3. The corresponding phase profiles of Ex for (c) λ = 655 nm and (d) λ = 540 nm, and schematics showing the bound surface charge distribution on the bowtie surface and the major polarizations for (e) λ = 655 nm and (f) λ = 540 nm. The apex is truncated with w = 20 nm and the gap size, d, is 10 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The maximum E intensity enhancement at plasmon resonance as a function of (a) the gap size, d, for apex widths w of 5, 10, and 20 nm and (b) the product of the apex width and the gap size, wd. (symbols: FDTD data; lines: power-law fitting)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The maximum E intensity enhancement at plasmon resonance as a function of the inter-bowtie distance along the polarization direction, c, for fixing the inter-bowtie distance along the direction normal to the polarization as 300 nm and truncated apex with w = 10 nm and d = 10 nm.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E x = Re [ E x ] + i Im [ E x ] = | E x | exp ( i ϕ ) ,
| E x | = Re [ E x ] 2 + Im [ E x ] 2 ,
ϕ = tan 1 ( Im [ E x ] / Re [ E x ] ) ,
P = ( ε m ε 0 ) E ,
ρ b = P n ,
ρ b = ( ε m ε 0 ) E n .
ρ b = ( ε Au ε 0 ) E x   (at opposing apex)
ρ b = ( ε Au ε 0 ) E x   (at end of bowtie)
| E | 2 = A d m ,

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