Abstract

Collinear coherent combination of multiple single frequency fiber amplifiers is a promising approach to realize the high power laser sources required for 3rd generation gravitational wave detectors (GWD), as long as the stringent requirements on the beam quality and noise properties can be met. Here, we report the beam quality and noise properties of two coherently combined 10 W single frequency amplifiers with respect to the requirements of GWD. The combining efficiency was larger than 95% with 97% of the combined beam in the fundamental spatial mode. There was no significant noise increase compared to the fluctuations of the single amplifier.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, and T. M. Shay, “Experimental and theoretical studies of single frequency PCF amplifier with output of 400 W,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801I (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. L. R. Taylor, Y. Feng, and D. B. Calia, “50W CW visible laser source at 589nm obtained via frequency doubling of three coherently combined narrow-band Raman fibre amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8540–8555 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Laser beam quality and pointing measurement with an optical resonator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(7), 073103 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. M. Heurs, V. M. Quetschke, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and I. Freitag, “Simultaneously suppressing frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator by means of the current-lock technique,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2148–2150 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. L. Savage, P. J. King, and S. U. Seel, “A Highly Stabilized 10-Watt Nd:YAG Laser for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO),” Laser Phys. 8, 679–685 (1998).

2011 (2)

N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

S. J. Augst, J. K. Ranka, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Beam combining of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1707–1715 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gray, A. Liu, D. T. Walton, J. Wang, M.-J. Li, X. Chen, A. B. Ruffin, J. A. Demeritt, and L. A. Zenteno, “502 Watt, single transverse mode, narrow linewidth, bidirectionally pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17044–17050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Laser beam quality and pointing measurement with an optical resonator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(7), 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2001 (2)

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. I. Ueda, “Intensity and frequency noise characteristics of two coherently-added injection-locked Nd: YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 209–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. L. Savage, P. J. King, and S. U. Seel, “A Highly Stabilized 10-Watt Nd:YAG Laser for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO),” Laser Phys. 8, 679–685 (1998).

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alley, T. G.

Augst, S. J.

Baker, J. T.

Benham, V.

Black, E. D.

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, C.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bratcher, A.

Calia, D. B.

Chen, X.

Cheung, E. C.

Culpepper, M. A.

Dajani, I.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, and T. M. Shay, “Experimental and theoretical studies of single frequency PCF amplifier with output of 400 W,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

Demeritt, J. A.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

Fan, T. Y.

Feng, Y.

Flores, A. S.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Frede, M.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, I.

Goodno, G. D.

Gray, S.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Heurs, M.

Hickey, L. M. B.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. G.

Horley, R.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanaya, T.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. I. Ueda, “Intensity and frequency noise characteristics of two coherently-added injection-locked Nd: YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 209–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

King, P. J.

R. L. Savage, P. J. King, and S. U. Seel, “A Highly Stabilized 10-Watt Nd:YAG Laser for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO),” Laser Phys. 8, 679–685 (1998).

Kluzik, R.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kracht, D.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwee, P.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Laser beam quality and pointing measurement with an optical resonator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(7), 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.-J.

Liu, A.

Lu, C. A.

Mavalvala, N.

N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McComb, T. S.

McNaught, S. J.

Mueller, G.

N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Musha, M.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. I. Ueda, “Intensity and frequency noise characteristics of two coherently-added injection-locked Nd: YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 209–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. I. Ueda, “Intensity and frequency noise characteristics of two coherently-added injection-locked Nd: YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 209–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. J.

Neumann, J.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pilkington, D.

Poeld, J.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pulford, B.

Puncken, O.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quetschke, V. M.

Ranka, J. K.

Reitze, D. H.

N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. R.

Robin, C.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, and T. M. Shay, “Experimental and theoretical studies of single frequency PCF amplifier with output of 400 W,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Ruffin, A. B.

Sahu, J. K.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

Sanchez, A. D.

Savage, R. L.

R. L. Savage, P. J. King, and S. U. Seel, “A Highly Stabilized 10-Watt Nd:YAG Laser for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO),” Laser Phys. 8, 679–685 (1998).

Schnabel, R.

N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seel, S. U.

R. L. Savage, P. J. King, and S. U. Seel, “A Highly Stabilized 10-Watt Nd:YAG Laser for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO),” Laser Phys. 8, 679–685 (1998).

Seifert, F.

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Laser beam quality and pointing measurement with an optical resonator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(7), 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shay, T. M.

Shih, C. C.

Spring, J.

Taylor, L. R.

Thielen, P.

Thielen, P. A.

Tiemann, B. G.

R. Uberna, A. Bratcher, and B. G. Tiemann, “Coherent polarization beam combination,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1191–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tröbs, M.

Turner, P. W.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 546–551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uberna, R.

Ueda, K. I.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. I. Ueda, “Intensity and frequency noise characteristics of two coherently-added injection-locked Nd: YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 209–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veltkamp, C.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vergien, C.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, and T. M. Shay, “Experimental and theoretical studies of single frequency PCF amplifier with output of 400 W,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walton, D. T.

Wang, J.

Ward, B.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

Weber, M. E.

Wessels, P.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weßels, P.

Wickham, M.

Wickham, M. G.

Willke, B.

N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwee, F. Seifert, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, “Laser beam quality and pointing measurement with an optical resonator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(7), 073103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Heurs, V. M. Quetschke, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and I. Freitag, “Simultaneously suppressing frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator by means of the current-lock technique,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2148–2150 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkelmann, L.

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L. A.

Zeringue, C.

C. Robin, I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, and T. M. Shay, “Experimental and theoretical studies of single frequency PCF amplifier with output of 400 W,” Proc. SPIE 7580, 75801I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound–Drever–Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. I. Ueda, “Intensity and frequency noise characteristics of two coherently-added injection-locked Nd: YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 209–214 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Winkelmann, O. Puncken, R. Kluzik, C. Veltkamp, P. Kwee, J. Poeld, C. Bogan, B. Willke, M. Frede, J. Neumann, P. Wessels, and D. Kracht, “Injection-locked single-frequency laser with an output power of 220 W,” Appl. Phys. B 102(3), 529–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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N. Mavalvala, D. E. McClelland, G. Mueller, D. H. Reitze, R. Schnabel, and B. Willke, “Lasers and Optics: looking towards third generation gravitational wave detectors,” Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 43(2), 569–592 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematical overview of the beam combining setup. PBS: Polarizing beam splitter, EOM: electro optical modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power of the amplifiers and the coherently combined output power of the system. When we measured the slope of the combined beam, the pump power of the second amplifier was fine tuned to optimize the combining efficiency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Combining part of the setup, including the mode cleaner cavity for the beam quality measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative power noise of combined beam, single amplifier and NPRO seed laser. For the largest part of the spectrum the RPN is dominated by the single amplifiers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency noise of single amplifier and combined beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Differential phase noise of the two amplifiers (free running, stabilized and the projection of frequency noise of the seed laser). The peak at ~15 Hz and the ones around 100 Hz, which can be seen in the RPN of the combined beams, are also present here.

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