Abstract

Based on tissues from 20 female patients (mean age: 53 years; rang: 36-72 years), we examine the performance of a room-temperature-operated terahertz (THz) fiber-scanning near-field microscopy to diagnose slices of breast tissues. The specimens were frozen sliced and then measured in a thawed state without dehydration. We performed the imaging at 320GHz. Our study indicates that images acquired in the THz transmission-illumination mode can all clearly distinguish breast tumor tissues from normal tissues without H&E staining. Due to its capability to perform quantitative analysis and to allow follow-up staining and traditional pathohistological analysis, our study indicates great potential of the THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy for future automation, which is critical for fast and complete pre-screening on breast tumor pathological examinations and for assisting quick definition of the tumor margins during the surgical procedure such as breast-conserving surgery.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Eisele, A. Rydberg, and G. I. Haddad, “Recent advances in the performance of InP Gunn devices and GaAs TUNNETT diodes for the 100-300GHz frequency range and above,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(4), 626–631 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

C. M. Chiu, H. W. Chen, Y. R. Huang, Y. J. Hwang, W. J. Lee, H. Y. Huang, and C. K. Sun, “All-terahertz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 1084–1086 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-7-1084 .
[CrossRef]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

L. J. Chen, H. W. Chen, T. F. Kao, J. Y. Lu, and C. K. Sun, “Low-loss subwavelength plastic fiber for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 308–310 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-3-308 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz absorption spectra of L-, D-, and D L-alanine and their application to determination of enantiometric composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-20-2549 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3667–3677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging,” Microelectron. J. 33(12), 1043–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisele, A. Rydberg, and G. I. Haddad, “Recent advances in the performance of InP Gunn devices and GaAs TUNNETT diodes for the 100-300GHz frequency range and above,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(4), 626–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. E. Carlstrom, L. R. Plambeck, and D. D. Thornton, “A continuously tunable 65-115GHz Gunn oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 33(7), 610–619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Abbott and X. C. Zhang, “Scanning the issue: T-ray imaging, sensing, and detection,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1509–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging,” Microelectron. J. 33(12), 1043–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

Bauer, T.

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosserhoff, A.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, R.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J. E.

J. E. Carlstrom, L. R. Plambeck, and D. D. Thornton, “A continuously tunable 65-115GHz Gunn oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 33(7), 610–619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. W.

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, L. J.

Chen, L.-J.

Chiu, C. M.

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciesla, C. M.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawley, D.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawley, D. A.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czasch, S.

Eisele, H.

H. Eisele, A. Rydberg, and G. I. Haddad, “Recent advances in the performance of InP Gunn devices and GaAs TUNNETT diodes for the 100-300GHz frequency range and above,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(4), 626–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging,” Microelectron. J. 33(12), 1043–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, D.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging,” Microelectron. J. 33(12), 1043–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haddad, G. I.

H. Eisele, A. Rydberg, and G. I. Haddad, “Recent advances in the performance of InP Gunn devices and GaAs TUNNETT diodes for the 100-300GHz frequency range and above,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(4), 626–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz absorption spectra of L-, D-, and D L-alanine and their application to determination of enantiometric composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haring Bolivar, P.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. Y.

Huang, S. Y.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. R.

Hwang, Y. J.

Inoue, H.

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, T. F.

Kawase, K.

Kuo, J.-L.

Kurz, H.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

Li, Y.-T.

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

Longbottom, C.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Y.

Lu, J.-Y.

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S. P.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyamaru, F.

M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz absorption spectra of L-, D-, and D L-alanine and their application to determination of enantiometric composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, Y.

Pan, C.-L.

Pepper, M.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12444 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12444 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

Plambeck, L. R.

J. E. Carlstrom, L. R. Plambeck, and D. D. Thornton, “A continuously tunable 65-115GHz Gunn oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 33(7), 610–619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Png, G. M.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A. D.

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H.

Rydberg, A.

H. Eisele, A. Rydberg, and G. I. Haddad, “Recent advances in the performance of InP Gunn devices and GaAs TUNNETT diodes for the 100-300GHz frequency range and above,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(4), 626–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, K.

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C. K.

Sun, C.-K.

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tani, M.

M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz absorption spectra of L-, D-, and D L-alanine and their application to determination of enantiometric composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, D. D.

J. E. Carlstrom, L. R. Plambeck, and D. D. Thornton, “A continuously tunable 65-115GHz Gunn oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 33(7), 610–619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12444 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging,” Microelectron. J. 33(12), 1043–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-X. J.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz absorption spectra of L-, D-, and D L-alanine and their application to determination of enantiometric composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz absorption spectra of L-, D-, and D L-alanine and their application to determination of enantiometric composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Abbott and X. C. Zhang, “Scanning the issue: T-ray imaging, sensing, and detection,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1509–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3667–3677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging,” Microelectron. J. 33(12), 1043–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-T.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, P. Haring Bolivar, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4049–4051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, F. Miyamaru, K. Yamamoto, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz absorption spectra of L-, D-, and D L-alanine and their application to determination of enantiometric composition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 053903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

CA Cancer J. Clin.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, J. Xu, and E. Ward, “Cancer statistics, 2010,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 60(5), 277–300 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caries Res.

D. A. Crawley, C. Longbottom, B. E. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry,” Caries Res. 37(5), 352–359 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, “Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 320(1-2), 42–48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

J. E. Carlstrom, L. R. Plambeck, and D. D. Thornton, “A continuously tunable 65-115GHz Gunn oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 33(7), 610–619 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisele, A. Rydberg, and G. I. Haddad, “Recent advances in the performance of InP Gunn devices and GaAs TUNNETT diodes for the 100-300GHz frequency range and above,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(4), 626–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Crawley, C. Longbottom, V. P. Wallace, B. Cole, D. Arnone, and M. Pepper, “Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pharm. Sci.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, and P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive analysis of tablet coating thicknesses using terahertz pulsed imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. J.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging,” Microelectron. J. 33(12), 1043–1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, Y.-X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y.-T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave imaging: horizons and hurdles,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3667–3677 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. C. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

D. Abbott and X. C. Zhang, “Scanning the issue: T-ray imaging, sensing, and detection,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1509–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radiology

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, S. E. Pinder, E. Provenzano, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz spectroscopy of breast tumors,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves and Terahertz Electronics (Cardiff, UK, 2007), pp. 603–605.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the THz fiber-scanning near-field microscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The THz near-field microscopic images of Case 1-Case 4 and the corresponding pathologic photomicrograph of H&E stained sections. The areas of breast tumor in the pathologic photomicrographs were marked by a black solid boundary.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The THz near-field microscopic images of Case 5 - Case 20 and the corresponding pathologic photomicrograph of H&E stained sections. The areas of breast tumor in the pathologic photomicrographs were marked by a black solid boundary.

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