Abstract

The spectral evolution of a high-intensity light channel formed by filamentation is investigated in a detailed experimental study. We also track the spatio-temporal dynamics by high-order harmonic generation along the filament. Both the spectral and temporal diagnostics are performed as a function of propagation distance, by extracting the light pulses directly from the hot filament core into vacuum via pinholes that terminate the nonlinear propagation. We compare the measured spectral shapes to simulations and analyze numerically the temporal dynamics inside the filament.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” N. J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  45. S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self-compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 17626–17636 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “The WASP model: a micro-macro system of wave-Schrodinger-plasma equations for filamentation,” Commun. Comput. Phys. 9, 406–440 (2011).

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” N. J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, G. Ortenzi, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Quantum radiation from superluminal refractive-index perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 140403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, M. Clerici, V. Gorini, G. Ortenzi, L. Rizzi, E. Rubino, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Odhner, D. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Self-shortening dynamics measured along a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 125001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queiszer, R. Salame, E. Salmon, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P. A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, R. Salut, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio nanochannel machining using single shot femtosecond Bessel beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 081102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Bhuyan, F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, M. J. Withford, and J. M. Dudley, “High aspect ratio taper-free microchannel fabrication using femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Express 18(2), 566–574 (2010). URL http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-566 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Uryupina, M. Kurilova, A. Mazhorova, N. Panov, R. Volkov, S. Gorgutsa, O. Kosareva, A. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Few-cycle optical pulse production from collimated femtosecond laser beam filamentation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 667–674 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Alonso, I. J. Sola, O. Varela, J. Hernández-Toro, C. Méndez, J. S. Román, A. Zaïr, and L. Roso, “Spatiotemporal amplitude-and-phase reconstruction by Fourier-transform of interference spectra of high-complex-beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 933–940 (2010). URL http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-27-5-933 .
[CrossRef]

A. Börzsönyi, Z. Heiner, A. Kovács, M. P. Kalashnikov, and K. Osvay, “Measurement of pressure dependent nonlinear refractive index of inert gases,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25847–25854 (2010). URL url = http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-25847 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, T. Vockerodt, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Generation of high-order harmonics with ultra-short pulses from filamentation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16177–16182 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, A. Couairon, G. Tamoašuskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, “Accurate retrieval of pulse-splitting dynamics of a femtosecond filament in water by time-resolved shadowgraphy,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 3020–3022 (2009). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-19-3020 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Courvoisier, P.-A. Lacourt, M. Jacquot, M. K. Bhuyan, L. Furfaro, and J. M. Dudley, “Surface nanoprocessing with nondiffracting femtosecond Bessel beams,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3163–3165 (2009). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-20-3163 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Kandidov, Svyatoslav, A. Shlenov, and O. G. Kosareva, “Filamentation of high-power femtosecond laser radiation,” Quantum Electron. 39, 205–228 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
[CrossRef]

D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, E. Schulz, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Phase-matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 043819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. G. Papazoglou and S. Tzortzakis, “In-line holography for the characterization of ultrafast laser filamentation in transparent media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Kosareva, N. Panov, D. Uryupina, M. Kurilova, A. Mazhorova, A. Savelev, R. Volkov, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, “Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91, 35–43 (2008). 10.1007/s00340-008-2959-9, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-008-2959-9 .
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15(1), 013107 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/doi/10.1063/1.2830647 .
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, M. Tatarakis, A. Couairon, G. Tamošauskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, “Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 86–88 (2008). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-1-86 .
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Park, J. H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Laser chirp effect on femtosecond laser filamentation generated for pulse compression,” Opt. Express 16, 4465–4470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self-compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 17626–17636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, A. Mysyrowicz, and B. Leriche, “Calorimetric detection of the conical terahertz radiation from femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006). URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4HRN3HK-4/2/c167a65f6ec2f419c301db92f492e60c .
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Nonlinear optical pulse propagation simulation: From Maxwell’s to unidirectional equations,” Phys. Rev. E 70(3), 036604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Fibich and G. Papanicolaou, “Self-focusing in the perturbed and unperturbed nonlinear Schrdinger equation in critical dimension,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 60, 183–240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1992

F. A. Ilkov, J. E. Decker, and S. L. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. Wood, C. Siders, and M. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionisation dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

D. P. Shelton, “Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 42(5), 2578–2592 (1990).
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1986

M. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

1975

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
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1966

A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 259, 424–429 (1966).

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23(5), 924–934 (1966).

1965

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(5), 1307–1314 (1965).

Akturk, S.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
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S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self-compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 17626–17636 (2008).
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Akzbek, N.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
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Alonso, B.

Ammosov, M.

M. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1944–1946 (2002).
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Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Azarm, A.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 687–692 (2001).
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Bandrauk, A. D.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “The WASP model: a micro-macro system of wave-Schrodinger-plasma equations for filamentation,” Commun. Comput. Phys. 9, 406–440 (2011).

Beaudin, G.

Becker, A.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
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Belgiorno, F.

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, G. Ortenzi, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Quantum radiation from superluminal refractive-index perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 140403 (2010).
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F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, M. Clerici, V. Gorini, G. Ortenzi, L. Rizzi, E. Rubino, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203901 (2010).
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Bernhardt, J.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
[CrossRef]

Bhuyan, M. K.

Biegert, J.

Binhammer, T.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” N. J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
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D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, T. Vockerodt, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Generation of high-order harmonics with ultra-short pulses from filamentation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16177–16182 (2009).
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Bloas, J. L.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Börzsönyi, A.

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cacciatori, S. L.

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, G. Ortenzi, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Quantum radiation from superluminal refractive-index perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 140403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, M. Clerici, V. Gorini, G. Ortenzi, L. Rizzi, E. Rubino, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, H. S.

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charalambidis, D.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “The WASP model: a micro-macro system of wave-Schrodinger-plasma equations for filamentation,” Commun. Comput. Phys. 9, 406–440 (2011).

Chin, S.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
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O. Kosareva, N. Panov, D. Uryupina, M. Kurilova, A. Mazhorova, A. Savelev, R. Volkov, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, “Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 91, 35–43 (2008). 10.1007/s00340-008-2959-9, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-008-2959-9 .
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Chin, S. L.

D. Uryupina, M. Kurilova, A. Mazhorova, N. Panov, R. Volkov, S. Gorgutsa, O. Kosareva, A. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Few-cycle optical pulse production from collimated femtosecond laser beam filamentation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 667–674 (2010).
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F. A. Ilkov, J. E. Decker, and S. L. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
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Chteauneuf, M.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
[CrossRef]

Clerici, M.

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, M. Clerici, V. Gorini, G. Ortenzi, L. Rizzi, E. Rubino, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” N. J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043901 (2009).
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S. Minardi, A. Gopal, A. Couairon, G. Tamoašuskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, “Accurate retrieval of pulse-splitting dynamics of a femtosecond filament in water by time-resolved shadowgraphy,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 3020–3022 (2009). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-19-3020 .
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S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self-compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 17626–17636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, A. Gopal, M. Tatarakis, A. Couairon, G. Tamošauskas, R. Piskarskas, A. Dubietis, and P. D. Trapani, “Time-resolved refractive index and absorption mapping of light-plasma filaments in water,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 86–88 (2008). URL http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-1-86 .
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A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006). URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4HRN3HK-4/2/c167a65f6ec2f419c301db92f492e60c .
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C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Courvoisier, F.

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daigle, J.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
[CrossRef]

Dalgarno, A.

A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, “The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 259, 424–429 (1966).

Decker, J. E.

F. A. Ilkov, J. E. Decker, and S. L. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N.

M. Ammosov, N. Delone, and V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

Downer, M.

W. Wood, C. Siders, and M. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionisation dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubietis, A.

Dubois, J.

S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Eckle, P.

Encrenaz, P.

Faccio, D.

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, G. Ortenzi, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Quantum radiation from superluminal refractive-index perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 140403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, M. Clerici, V. Gorini, G. Ortenzi, L. Rizzi, E. Rubino, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fibich, G.

G. Fibich and G. Papanicolaou, “Self-focusing in the perturbed and unperturbed nonlinear Schrdinger equation in critical dimension,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 60, 183–240 (1999).
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Franco, M.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self-compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16, 17626–17636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006). URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4HRN3HK-4/2/c167a65f6ec2f419c301db92f492e60c .
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15(1), 013107 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/doi/10.1063/1.2830647 .
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Fukuchi, T.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15(1), 013107 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/doi/10.1063/1.2830647 .
[CrossRef]

Furfaro, L.

Gaarde, M. B.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” N. J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

Gheudin, M.

Gopal, A.

Gorgutsa, S.

Gorini, V.

F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, M. Clerici, V. Gorini, G. Ortenzi, L. Rizzi, E. Rubino, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goto, N.

T. Fujii, M. Miki, N. Goto, A. Zhidkov, T. Fukuchi, Y. Oishi, and K. Nemoto, “Leader effects on femtosecond-laser-filament-triggered discharges,” Phys. Plasmas 15(1), 013107 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/doi/10.1063/1.2830647 .
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Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guandalini, A.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Hao, Z.

P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queiszer, R. Salame, E. Salmon, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queiszer, R. Salame, E. Salmon, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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C. D’Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward THz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” N. J. Phys. 10, 013015 (2008).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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Romanov, D.

J. Odhner, D. Romanov, and R. J. Levis, “Self-shortening dynamics measured along a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 125001 (2010).
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F. Belgiorno, S. L. Cacciatori, M. Clerici, V. Gorini, G. Ortenzi, L. Rizzi, E. Rubino, V. G. Sala, and D. Faccio, “Hawking radiation from ultrashort laser pulse filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(20), 203901 (2010).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queiszer, R. Salame, E. Salmon, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queiszer, R. Salame, E. Salmon, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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S. Chin, H. Xu, Q. Luo, F. Thberge, W. Liu, J. Daigle, Y. Kamali, P. Simard, J. Bernhardt, S. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, G. Mjean, A. Azarm, C. Marceau, O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, N. Akzbek, A. Becker, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, J. Simard, M. Chteauneuf, and J. Dubois, “Filamentation remote sensing of chemical and biological agents/pollutants using only one femtosecond laser source,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 95, 1–12 (2009). 10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7, URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3381-7 .
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D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, T. Vockerodt, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Generation of high-order harmonics with ultra-short pulses from filamentation,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16177–16182 (2009).
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D. Uryupina, M. Kurilova, A. Mazhorova, N. Panov, R. Volkov, S. Gorgutsa, O. Kosareva, A. Savel’ev, and S. L. Chin, “Few-cycle optical pulse production from collimated femtosecond laser beam filamentation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(4), 667–674 (2010).
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N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 687–692 (2001).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queiszer, R. Salame, E. Salmon, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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W. Wood, C. Siders, and M. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionisation dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Kasparian, K. Stelmaszczyk, Z. Hao, S. Henin, N. Lascoux, W. M. Nakaema, Y. Petit, M. Queiszer, R. Salame, E. Salmon, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, “Laser-induced water condensation in air,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 451–456 (2010).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301(5629), 61–64 (2003).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Experimental setup. Pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier are focused by a curved mirror (CM) into a semi-infinite gas cell (SIGC) filled with argon. The filament formed in the argon gas is truncated by a laser-drilled pinhole with subsequent propagation in vacuum. The generated white-light is coupled out with an exit window for spectral analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Measured pulse spectra at three different positions behind the focusing optic extracted from the filament at 1000 mbar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Spectral evolution of propagating pulses inside a filament on a logarithmic color (gray) scale. (a)–(e) Normalized integrated pulse spectra versus the position of extraction at five different argon pressures. (f) Numerically calculated map of single shot pulse spectra at 1000 mbar argon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The evolution of (a) the Fourier-limited pulse duration (FWHM), and (b) the central wavelength versus propagation at three different pressures. The dashed lines show the simulation results for an argon pressure of 1000 mbar. The filled circles in (a) and (b) indicate the converged Fourier limit and central wavelength for the fully propagated filament.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Measured beam profiles in the far field from the truncated filament 226 cm (a) and 256 cm (b) after the focusing optic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Simulated FROG trace ℱ(t,ω) (first line), intensity I(t,r) (second line) and electron density ρ(t,r) (third line) distributions at four propagation distances within the gas cell.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Simulated pulse duration (FWHM) of the radially averaged pulse intensity over a radius of 20 or 50 μm, as functions of the propagation distance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) High-order harmonics generated directly in the filament extracted at different positions after the focusing optic.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) Position of the intensity spikes A and B versus pressure of the nonlinear medium for the experiment (box, cross) and theory (lines) for two different apertures (D = 5.5 mm and 7.5 mm). (b) Position of intensity spikes versus chirp for 1000 mbar argon. The symbols denote the same as in (a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Offset Values Determined by a Fit to the Data Shown (a) in Fig. 9(a), and (b) in Fig. 9(b), Respectively (see text for details)

Equations (11)

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˜ z = i 2 𝒦 ( ω ) [ Δ + k 2 ( ω ) 𝒦 2 ( ω ) ] ˜ + μ 0 ω 2 𝒦 ( ω ) ( i ω 𝒫 ˜ Kerr 𝒥 ˜ )
𝒫 Kerr ( r , z , t ) = ε 0 2 n 0 n 2 | ( r , z , t ) | 2 ( r , z , t ) ,
𝒥 Plasma t = e 2 m e N e 𝒥 Plasma τ c
N Ar t = W ( | | ) N Ar .
J NLL = W ( | | ) | | 2 N Ar U i
( r , z = z in , t ) = 0 exp [ r 2 w 0 2 i k 0 r 2 2 f 0 ] exp [ t 2 τ p 2 ]
( t , ω ) = | 1 2 π + exp ( i ω t ) ( t ) g ( t t ) d t | 2
L c = 0.367 z R ( P Peak / P cr 0.852 ) 2 0.0219
L c , f = ( L c 1 + f 1 ) 1 .
z i = L c , f ( p ) + L i , i = A , B .
P peak ( β ) = P peak ( 0 ) τ p 2 + ( 2 β / τ p ) 2 .

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