Abstract

We study the process of high-order harmonic generation using laser pulses with non-adiabatic turn-on and intensities well above saturation. As a main point, we report the existence of a valley structure in the efficiency of single-atom high-order harmonic generation with increasing laser intensities. Consequently, after an initial decrease, the high-frequency radiation yield is shown to increase for higher intensities, returning to a level similar to the case below saturation. Such behavior contradicts the general belief of a progressive degradation of the harmonic emission at ultrahigh intensities, based on the experience with pulses with smoother turn-on. We shall show that this behavior corresponds to the emergence of a new pathway for high-order harmonic generation, which takes place during the pulse turn-on. Our study combines trajectory analysis, wavelet techniques and the numerical integration of 3-Dimensional Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation. The increase in efficiency raises the possibility of employing ultrahigh intensities to generate high-frequency radiation beyond the water window.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013828 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generationby molecular alignment of N2 and O2,” Opt. Express 17, 5822–5828 (2009).
    [PubMed]
  24. H. Cai, J. Wu, X. Bai, H. Pan, and H Zeng, “Molecular-alignment-assisted high-energy supercontinuum pulse generation in air,” Opt. Lett. 35, 49–51 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cai, J. Wu, X. Bai, H. Pan, and H Zeng, “Molecular-alignment-assisted high-energy supercontinuum pulse generation in air,” Opt. Lett. 35, 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generationby molecular alignment of N2 and O2,” Opt. Express 17, 5822–5828 (2009).
[PubMed]

H. Xiong, H. Xu, Y. Fu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, E. J. Takahashi, K. Midorikawa, X. Liu, and J. Chen, “Generation of a coherent x ray in the water window region at 1 kHz repetition rate using a mid-infrared pump source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1747–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17, 9891–9903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

V. V. Strelkov, A. F. Sterjantov, N. Yu Shubin, and V. T. Platonenko, “XUV generation with several-cycle laser pulse in barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 577–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, and T. Brabec, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in the nonadiabatic limit,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 033817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier suppression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

K. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, X.

Baik, M. G.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, and T. Brabec, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in the nonadiabatic limit,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 033817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, H.

H. Cai, J. Wu, X. Bai, H. Pan, and H Zeng, “Molecular-alignment-assisted high-energy supercontinuum pulse generation in air,” Opt. Lett. 35, 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generationby molecular alignment of N2 and O2,” Opt. Express 17, 5822–5828 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, M. C.

Cheng, Y.

Cheng, Z.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

Cohen, O.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferencz, K.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, F.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferray, M.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Geissler, M.

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, and T. Brabec, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in the nonadiabatic limit,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 033817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grisham, M. E.

Kan, C.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koppitsch, R.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

K. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lompre, L. A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lucchini, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, A. L.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malyshev, V.

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier suppression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manus, C.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Moreno, P.

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier suppression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, H.

Peng, Y.

H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generationby molecular alignment of N2 and O2,” Opt. Express 17, 5822–5828 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Hernández, J. A.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17, 9891–9903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17, 9891–9903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier suppression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Platonenko, V. T.

V. V. Strelkov, A. F. Sterjantov, N. Yu Shubin, and V. T. Platonenko, “XUV generation with several-cycle laser pulse in barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 577–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos, J.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Roso, L.

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 17, 9891–9903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vazquez de Aldana and L. Roso, “Magnetic-field effect in atomic ionization by intense laser fields,” Opt. Express 5, 144–148 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier suppression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K.

K. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnrer, M.

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seres, E.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seres, J.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sterjantov, A. F.

V. V. Strelkov, A. F. Sterjantov, N. Yu Shubin, and V. T. Platonenko, “XUV generation with several-cycle laser pulse in barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 577–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Streli, C.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V. V.

V. V. Strelkov, A. F. Sterjantov, N. Yu Shubin, and V. T. Platonenko, “XUV generation with several-cycle laser pulse in barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 577–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, E. J.

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tempea, G.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, and T. Brabec, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in the nonadiabatic limit,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 033817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Umesh, G.

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez de Aldana, J.

Verhoef, A. J.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, N. L.

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wobrauschek, P.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

H. Cai, J. Wu, X. Bai, H. Pan, and H Zeng, “Molecular-alignment-assisted high-energy supercontinuum pulse generation in air,” Opt. Lett. 35, 49–51 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generationby molecular alignment of N2 and O2,” Opt. Express 17, 5822–5828 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, H.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Yakovlev, V.

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

K. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Yu Shubin, N.

V. V. Strelkov, A. F. Sterjantov, N. Yu Shubin, and V. T. Platonenko, “XUV generation with several-cycle laser pulse in barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 577–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

Zeng, H

Zeng, H.

H. Cai, J. Wu, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Comparison study of supercontinuum generationby molecular alignment of N2 and O2,” Opt. Express 17, 5822–5828 (2009).
[PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Strelkov, A. F. Sterjantov, N. Yu Shubin, and V. T. Platonenko, “XUV generation with several-cycle laser pulse in barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 577–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: phase and temporal description,” Laser Phys. 20, 1044–1050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Ferrari, F. Calegari, M. Lucchini, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields,” Nat. Photonics 4, 875–879 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Laser technology: source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phy. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, N. L. Wagner, A. L. Lytle, O. Cohen, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Enhanced high harmonic generation from multiply ionized argon above 500 eV through laser pulse self-compression,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 103, 143901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier suppression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Kim, C. M. Kim, M. G. Baik, G. Umesh, and C. H. Nam, “Single sub-50-attosecond pulse generation from chirp-compensated harmonic radiation using material dispersion,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 051805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Geissler, G. Tempea, and T. Brabec, “Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in the nonadiabatic limit,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 033817 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, A. Couairon, and H. Zeng, “Few-cycle shock X-wave generation by filamentation in prealigned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013828 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, Y. Peng, and H. Zeng, “Controllable supercontinuum generation by the quantum wake of molecular alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV X-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft X rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

C. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnrer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278, 661–664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rescattering energies of electrons as a function of the ionization time (blue circles) and recollision time (black triangles), for laser pulses of (a) constant envelop, and (b) and (c) as described in Eq. (1) with (b) ϕ = 0 and (c) ϕ = π/2. A sketch of the driving field used in each case is shown as solid red lines. Note that for the case ϕ = 0, appears the special set of trajectories in the turn-on of the pulse, labeled as NAT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra resulting from the exact integration of the 3D Schrödinger equation using the laser pulse described in Eq. (1) with ϕ = 0 (Fig. 1(b)), for different values of the field intensity: threshold of saturation (I = 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2, light grey line), saturation (I = 5.6 × 1015 W/cm2, blue line) and deep saturation (I = 4.2 × 1016 W/cm2, red line). Inset: full spectrum for the deep saturation case, the arrow points the cut-off frequency Ip + 0.5Up , associated to NAT trajectories.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Estimations of (a) the relative contributions to the harmonic yield at W 0 = 73 eV, (b) the probability amplitude of the ground state, and (c) the corresponding continuum state at the moment of recollision for the sets of trajectories highlighted in Fig. 1(b). Contributions of NAT trajectories are shown as red circles, long SC trajectories as open squares and short SC as blue triangles. The dashed line in (a) is a sketch of the resulting valley structure for the total radiation yield (sum of the above contributions). The laser amplitudes E are given in atomic units, corresponding to intensities E 2 × 3.5 × 1016 W/cm 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Isolated attosecond pulse generated from the harmonic spectrum for the case of deep saturation regime (I = 4.2 × 1016 W/cm2) corresponding to the spectrum in red of Fig. 3. The attosecond is synthesized filtering the harmonics below 31st (46 eV photon energy).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelet analysis extracted from the exact integration of 3D TDSE, and (superimposed) classical rescattering energies of electrons as a function of the recombination time (black triangles) for laser pulse described in Eq. (1) with ϕ = 0 and the intensities used in Fig. 3 (in (a) E 0 = 0.1 a.u., in (b) E 0 = 0.4 a.u. and in (c) E 0 = 1.1 a.u.). The driving laser field is shown in solid red lines. Note that the efficiencies are plotted in the colour bars in an absolute scale (no rescaling is done from one case to the other).

Equations (3)

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E ( t ) = E 0 sin 2 ( ω t 6 ) sin ( ω t + φ )
| d ( t ) | + | a 0 * ( t ) | | a v ( t ) |
| a v ( t ) | 2 d d t | a 0 | 2 | t 0 Δ t

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