Abstract

In imaging and focusing applications, spherical aberration induces axial broadening of the point spread function (PSF). A transparent medium between lens and object of interest induces spherical aberration. We propose a method that first obtains both the physical thickness and the refractive index of the aberration inducing medium in situ by measuring the induced focal shifts for paraxial and large angle rays. Then, the fourth order angle dependence of the optical path difference inside the medium is used to correct the spherical aberration using a phase-only spatial light modulator. The obtained measurement accuracy of 3% is sufficient for a complete compensation as demonstrated in a model microscope with NA 0.3 with glass plate induced axial broadening of the PSF by a factor of 5.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. J. Stamnes and D. Velauthapillai, “Focal shifts on focusing through a plane interface,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2286–2291 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11013–11025 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Labiau, G. David, S. Gigan, and A. C. Boccara, “Defocus test and defocus correction in full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1576–1578 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Turaga and T. E. Holy, “Miniaturization and defocus correction for objective-coupled planar illumination microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2302–2304 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. N. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. M. Girkin, “Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1123–1130 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. N. S. Reihani and L. B. Oddershede, “Confocal microscopy of thick specimens,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030513 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. S. Wan, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. H. Webb, “Analysis of spherical aberration of a water immersion objective: application to specimens with refractive indices 1.33-1.40,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 274–284 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Hemmati and Y. Chen, “Active optical compensation of low-quality optical system aberrations,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1630–1632 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, “Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 65–71 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Booth, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for large aberrations,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 5–7 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc. 237(2), 136–147 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Itoh, N. Matsumoto, and T. Inoue, “Spherical aberration correction suitable for a wavefront controller,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14367–14373 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. W. Cha, J. Ballesta, and P. T. C. So, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046022 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. J. Choi, I. Jeon, S. G. Ahn, J. H. Yoon, S. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Full-field optical coherence microscopy for identifying live cancer cells by quantitative measurement of refractive index distribution,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23285–23295 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principles and Applications (Wiley, Chichester, 2007).
  21. S. Kim, J. Na, M. J. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and thickness by combining low-coherence interferometry and confocal optics,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5516–5526 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(1), 105–107 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Lee, S. Y. Ryu, Y. K. Kwak, S. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Separation algorithm for a 2D refractive index distribution and thickness profile of a phase object by laser diode-based multiwavelength interferometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(5), 053114 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Rappaz, P. Marquet, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, C. Depeursinge, and P. J. Magistretti, “Measurement of the integral refractive index and dynamic cell morphometry of living cells with digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9361–9373 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Iwaniuk, E. Hack, and P. Rastogi, “Generation of a high depth of focus with constant transversal spot size using a phase-only pupil filter,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(21), 2141–2146 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc. 237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Cha, J. Ballesta, and P. T. C. So, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046022 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Iwaniuk, E. Hack, and P. Rastogi, “Generation of a high depth of focus with constant transversal spot size using a phase-only pupil filter,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(21), 2141–2146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Choi, I. Jeon, S. G. Ahn, J. H. Yoon, S. Kim, and B. H. Lee, “Full-field optical coherence microscopy for identifying live cancer cells by quantitative measurement of refractive index distribution,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23285–23295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Labiau, G. David, S. Gigan, and A. C. Boccara, “Defocus test and defocus correction in full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1576–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11013–11025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Itoh, N. Matsumoto, and T. Inoue, “Spherical aberration correction suitable for a wavefront controller,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14367–14373 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Stamnes and D. Velauthapillai, “Focal shifts on focusing through a plane interface,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2286–2291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. N. S. Reihani and L. B. Oddershede, “Confocal microscopy of thick specimens,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee, S. Y. Ryu, Y. K. Kwak, S. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Separation algorithm for a 2D refractive index distribution and thickness profile of a phase object by laser diode-based multiwavelength interferometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(5), 053114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

M. J. Booth, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for large aberrations,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 5–7 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2003

2002

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, “Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 65–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. S. Wan, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. H. Webb, “Analysis of spherical aberration of a water immersion objective: application to specimens with refractive indices 1.33-1.40,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 274–284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(1), 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agard, D. A.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc. 237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S. G.

Albert, O.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, “Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 65–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

Badizadegan, K.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballesta, J.

J. W. Cha, J. Ballesta, and P. T. C. So, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046022 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

Booth, M. J.

Bredebusch, I.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, D.

Cha, J. W.

J. W. Cha, J. Ballesta, and P. T. C. So, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046022 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Choi, W.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W. J.

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, G.

Depeursinge, C.

Domschke, W.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, Y.

Feld, M. S.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, E. J.

Gigan, S.

Girkin, J. M.

Gray, D. F.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(1), 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hack, E.

D. Iwaniuk, E. Hack, and P. Rastogi, “Generation of a high depth of focus with constant transversal spot size using a phase-only pupil filter,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(21), 2141–2146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hemmati, H.

Holy, T. E.

Hosseini, H. M. M.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Inoue, T.

Itoh, H.

Iwaniuk, D.

D. Iwaniuk, E. Hack, and P. Rastogi, “Generation of a high depth of focus with constant transversal spot size using a phase-only pupil filter,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(21), 2141–2146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, I.

Ji, N.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kam, Z.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc. 237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemper, B.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. J.

Kim, S.

Kner, P.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc. 237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosmeier, S.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwak, Y. K.

K. Lee, S. Y. Ryu, Y. K. Kwak, S. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Separation algorithm for a 2D refractive index distribution and thickness profile of a phase object by laser diode-based multiwavelength interferometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(5), 053114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labiau, S.

Langehanenberg, P.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K.

K. Lee, S. Y. Ryu, Y. K. Kwak, S. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Separation algorithm for a 2D refractive index distribution and thickness profile of a phase object by laser diode-based multiwavelength interferometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(5), 053114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. W.

K. Lee, S. Y. Ryu, Y. K. Kwak, S. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Separation algorithm for a 2D refractive index distribution and thickness profile of a phase object by laser diode-based multiwavelength interferometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(5), 053114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, C. S.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. Q.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lue, N.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

Marquet, P.

Marsh, P. N.

Matsumoto, N.

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, J.

Norris, T. B.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, “Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 65–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oddershede, L. B.

S. N. S. Reihani and L. B. Oddershede, “Confocal microscopy of thick specimens,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

D. S. Wan, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. H. Webb, “Analysis of spherical aberration of a water immersion objective: application to specimens with refractive indices 1.33-1.40,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 274–284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

Rastogi, P.

D. Iwaniuk, E. Hack, and P. Rastogi, “Generation of a high depth of focus with constant transversal spot size using a phase-only pupil filter,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(21), 2141–2146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reihani, S. N. S.

S. N. S. Reihani and L. B. Oddershede, “Confocal microscopy of thick specimens,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

K. Lee, S. Y. Ryu, Y. K. Kwak, S. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Separation algorithm for a 2D refractive index distribution and thickness profile of a phase object by laser diode-based multiwavelength interferometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(5), 053114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnekenburger, J.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedat, J. W.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc. 237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherman, L.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, “Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 65–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

J. W. Cha, J. Ballesta, and P. T. C. So, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046022 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, W. Z.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(1), 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

J. J. Stamnes and D. Velauthapillai, “Focal shifts on focusing through a plane interface,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2286–2291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Turaga, D.

Velauthapillai, D.

J. J. Stamnes and D. Velauthapillai, “Focal shifts on focusing through a plane interface,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2286–2291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

von Bally, G.

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, D. S.

D. S. Wan, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. H. Webb, “Analysis of spherical aberration of a water immersion objective: application to specimens with refractive indices 1.33-1.40,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 274–284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

D. S. Wan, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. H. Webb, “Analysis of spherical aberration of a water immersion objective: application to specimens with refractive indices 1.33-1.40,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 274–284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yap, P. H.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yaqoob, Z.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. Y.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, “Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 65–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J. H.

Zhang, X. M.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, “Simultaneous thickness and group index measurement using optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(1), 105–107 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S. N. S. Reihani and L. B. Oddershede, “Confocal microscopy of thick specimens,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Cha, J. Ballesta, and P. T. C. So, “Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046022 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kemper, S. Kosmeier, P. Langehanenberg, G. von Bally, I. Bredebusch, W. Domschke, and J. Schnekenburger, “Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc.

P. Kner, J. W. Sedat, D. A. Agard, and Z. Kam, “High-resolution wide-field microscopy with adaptive optics for spherical aberration correction and motionless focusing,” J. Microsc. 237(2), 136–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wan, M. Rajadhyaksha, and R. H. Webb, “Analysis of spherical aberration of a water immersion objective: application to specimens with refractive indices 1.33-1.40,” J. Microsc. 197(3), 274–284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, “Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror,” J. Microsc. 206(1), 65–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt.

D. Iwaniuk, E. Hack, and P. Rastogi, “Generation of a high depth of focus with constant transversal spot size using a phase-only pupil filter,” J. Mod. Opt. 57(21), 2141–2146 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

J. J. Stamnes and D. Velauthapillai, “Focal shifts on focusing through a plane interface,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2286–2291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. Lee, S. Y. Ryu, Y. K. Kwak, S. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Separation algorithm for a 2D refractive index distribution and thickness profile of a phase object by laser diode-based multiwavelength interferometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(5), 053114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principles and Applications (Wiley, Chichester, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of a planar refractive index mismatch with thickness d (MO: microscope objective; O.A.: optical axis). Parameters are explained in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup to focus into a glass medium (BS: beam splitter, CCD: camera, SLM: spatial light modulator, MO: microscope objective).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial intensity measurement results for the reference (left) and for CaF2 (right). (FF: full field illumination, MR: marginal ray aperture, PAR: paraxial iris aperture)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D PSF measurement results in FF illumination for focusing through a) air, b) quartz glass, c) quartz glass with aberration correction.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results for different glass plates obtained with a 10x MO, NA 0.3 system.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

z = ρ h t 0 = ρ d tan α t 0 = z 0 d tan α t 0
Δ z = z 0 z = n 0 d n 2 + t 0 2 ( n 2 n 0 2 )
Δ f = d Δ z = d ( 1 n r 1 + t 0 2 ( 1 n r 2 ) )
Δ f d d n r [ 1 1 2 t 0 2 ( 1 n r 2 ) + 3 8 t 0 4 ( 1 n r 2 ) 2 ] = : Δ f M R
Δ f M R Δ f P A R 1 n r [ 1 1 2 t 0 2 ( 1 n r 2 ) + 3 8 t 0 4 ( 1 n r 2 ) 2 ] 1 n r
Δ f M R Δ f P A R = d 2 n t 0 2 ( 1 n r 2 ) 3 d 8 n t 0 4 ( 1 n r 2 ) 2
φ ( ρ ) = π d λ ( 1 n r ) ( ρ 2 3.2 2 ( 1 n r 2 ) ρ 4 3.2 4 3 4 ( 1 n r 2 ) 2 )

Metrics