Abstract

We report on an extensive investigation of photodarkening in Yb-doped silica fibers. A set of similar fibers, covering a large Yb concentration range, was made so as to compare the photodarkening induced losses. Careful measurements were made to ensure equal and uniform inversion for all the tested fibers. The results show that, with the specific set-up, the stretching parameter obtained through fitting has a very limited variation. This gives more meaning to the fitting parameters. Results tend to indicate a square law dependence of the concentration of excited ions on the final saturated loss. We also demonstrate self-similarity of loss evolution when experimental curves are simply normalized to fitting parameters. This evidence of self-similarity also supports the possibility of introducing a preliminary figure of merit for Yb-doped fiber. This will allow the impact of photodarkening on laser/amplifier devices to be evaluated.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. Jetschke and U. Röpke, “Power-law dependence of the photodarkening rate constant on the inversion in Yb doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 109–111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B, 71952B-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Aberg, D.

Barber, P. R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Basu, C.

Boyland, A. J.

Broer, M. M.

Byer, R. L.

Y. W. Lee, S. Sinha, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “Measurement of high photodarkening resistance in heavily Yb3+-doped phosphate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 14–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Digiovanni, D. J.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Y. W. Lee, S. Sinha, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “Measurement of high photodarkening resistance in heavily Yb3+-doped phosphate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 14–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Engholm, M.

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hotoleanu, M.

Jetschke, S.

Jiang, S.

Y. W. Lee, S. Sinha, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “Measurement of high photodarkening resistance in heavily Yb3+-doped phosphate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 14–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B, 71952B-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J.

Koponen, J. J.

Krol, D. M.

Lee, Y. W.

Y. W. Lee, S. Sinha, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “Measurement of high photodarkening resistance in heavily Yb3+-doped phosphate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 14–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Norin, L.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.

Richardson, D. J.

Röpke, U.

Sahu, J. K.

Sinha, S.

Y. W. Lee, S. Sinha, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “Measurement of high photodarkening resistance in heavily Yb3+-doped phosphate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 14–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Söderlund, M.

Söderlund, M. J.

Sones, C.

Tammela, S. K. T.

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B, 71952B-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. W. Lee, S. Sinha, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. L. Byer, and S. Jiang, “Measurement of high photodarkening resistance in heavily Yb3+-doped phosphate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 14–15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5-6), 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B, 71952B-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

All three fitting parameters versus fiber length. All values are normalized to the measured values using the shortest samples (1.8 cm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal evolution of the induced losses for fiber with same geometry. Symbols are experimental data. Line shows the fitting using Eq. (1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Equilibrium loss versus Yb-doping level. Solid black line is a square fitting with exponent 2.08. The horizontal scale is also proportional to the concentration of excited Yb ions (scale factor is 0.46). The initial point refers to zero induced loss in an undoped fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stretching parameter (circles) and time scale parameter (triangles) versus Yb-doping level. The right picture shows the inverse of time scale parameter in a double log scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data of Fig. 2 normalized using the fitting parameters reported in Fig. 4. Losses are normalized to the equilibrium value and time to the time constant.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 List of tested fibers. All fiber are silica glass.

Equations (2)

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α ( t ) = α e q [ 1 exp { ( t / τ ) β } ]
P D F O M = ( α e q L ) 2 ( α e q N Y b ) 2

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