Abstract

Current methods to calculate the emission enhancement of a quantum emitter coupled to an optical antenna of arbitrary geometry rely on analyzing the total Poynting vector power flow out of the emitter or the dyadic Green functions from full-field numerical simulations. Unfortunately, these methods do not provide information regarding the nature of the dominant energy decay pathways. We present a new approach that allows for a rigorous separation, quantification, and visualization of the emitter output power flow captured by an antenna and the subsequent reradiation power flow to the far field. Such analysis reveals unprecedented details of the emitter/antenna coupling mechanisms and thus opens up new design strategies for strongly interacting emitter/antenna systems used in sensing, active plasmonics and metamaterials, and quantum optics.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  2. P. R. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic Press, 1994).
  3. Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmonic resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. V. Bashevoy, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical whirlpool on an absorbing metallic nanoparticle,” Opt. Express 13, 8372–8379 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1623–1625 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. G. Etchegoin and E. C. L. Ru, “Multipolar emission in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 1175–1188 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. F. Koenderink, “On the use of purcell factors for plasmon antennas,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4208–4210 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interfaces (Wiley, 1978), Vol. 37.
  20. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).
  21. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant mode,” Nano Lett. 11, 1020–1024 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “How can a resonant nanogap enhnace optical fields by many orders of magnitude?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1565–1576 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16, 16529–16537 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. D. Valle, T. Sondergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmon-polariton nano-strip resonators: from visible to infra-red,” Opt. Express 16, 6867–6876 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant mode,” Nano Lett. 11, 1020–1024 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmonic resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, “On the use of purcell factors for plasmon antennas,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4208–4210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

G. D. Valle, T. Sondergaard, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmon-polariton nano-strip resonators: from visible to infra-red,” Opt. Express 16, 6867–6876 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16, 16529–16537 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “How can a resonant nanogap enhnace optical fields by many orders of magnitude?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1565–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1623–1625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Etchegoin and E. C. L. Ru, “Multipolar emission in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 1175–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

1988

H. Chew, “Radiation and lifetimes of atoms inside dielectric particles,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3410–3416 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

C. F. Bohren, “How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?” Am. J. Phys. 51, 323–327 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Agio, M.

Bakker, R. M.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

Bashevoy, M. V.

Berman, P. R.

P. R. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic Press, 1994).

Bharadwaj, P.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, “How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?” Am. J. Phys. 51, 323–327 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Boltasseva, A.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brongersma, M. L.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16, 16529–16537 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interfaces (Wiley, 1978), Vol. 37.

Chandran, A.

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chew, H.

H. Chew, “Radiation and lifetimes of atoms inside dielectric particles,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3410–3416 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, B.

Drachev, V. P.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmonic resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etchegoin, P. G.

P. G. Etchegoin and E. C. L. Ru, “Multipolar emission in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 1175–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

Fluckiger, P.

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gasser, P.

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J. J.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmonic resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005), 3rd ed.

Hakanson, U.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

Hemmer, P. R.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. C. Y.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Irudayaraj, J.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. C.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, F.

Kekatpure, R. D.

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koenderink, A. F.

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, S.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurokawa, Y.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “How can a resonant nanogap enhnace optical fields by many orders of magnitude?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1565–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “How can a resonant nanogap enhnace optical fields by many orders of magnitude?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1565–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

Pavius, M.

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, R. H.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interfaces (Wiley, 1978), Vol. 37.

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogobete, L.

L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1623–1625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ru, E. C. L.

P. G. Etchegoin and E. C. L. Ru, “Multipolar emission in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 1175–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1623–1625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interfaces (Wiley, 1978), Vol. 37.

Sondergaard, T.

Sorensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant mode,” Nano Lett. 11, 1020–1024 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005), 3rd ed.

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant mode,” Nano Lett. 11, 1020–1024 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teperik, T. V.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmonic resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valle, G. D.

van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant mode,” Nano Lett. 11, 1020–1024 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

E. S. Barnard, J. S. White, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Spectral properties of plasmonic resonator antennas,” Opt. Express 16, 16529–16537 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuang, H.

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “How can a resonant nanogap enhnace optical fields by many orders of magnitude?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1565–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

P. G. Etchegoin and E. C. L. Ru, “Multipolar emission in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 1175–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, V. P. Drachev, Z. Liu, H. Yuang, R. H. Pedersen, A. Boltasseva, J. Chen, J. Irudayaraj, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes,” N. J. Phys. 10, 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: optical nanorod antennas modeled as cavities for dipolar emitters: evolution of sub- and super-radiant mode,” Nano Lett. 11, 1020–1024 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

J. N. Farahani, H. Eisler, D. W. Pohl, M. Pavius, P. Fluckiger, P. Gasser, and B. Hecht, “Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Nanotechnology 18, 125506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun.

Y. C. Jun, K. C. Y. Huang, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission,” Nat. Commun. 2, 283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. A

H. Chew, “Radiation and lifetimes of atoms inside dielectric particles,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 3410–3416 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sorensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmon,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Kuhn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, and J. J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmonic resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

P. R. Berman, Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (Academic Press, 1994).

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L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005), 3rd ed.

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