Abstract

We report on the production of air/silica photonic crystal fiber doped with gold nanoparticles. The stack-and-draw technique was used to combine a gold nanoparticles-doped silica core rod synthesized by the sol-gel route with capillaries drawn from commercially available silica tubes. The presence of nanoparticles in the core region was confirmed at the different steps of the process down to the fiber geometry, even after multiple drawings at ∼2000°C. Optical properties of the fiber were investigated and put in evidence the impact of gold nanoparticles on both linear and nonlinear transmission.

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).
  16. JCPDS, file 00–004–0784

2010 (3)

2006 (3)

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729–4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dhawan and J. F. Muth, “Plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticles incorporated inside an optical fibre matrix,” Nanotechnology 17, 2504–2511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films : influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. J. Xia and V. I. Birss, “A multi-technique study of compact and hydrous Au oxide growth in 0.1M sulfuric acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 500, 562–573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Underwood and P. Mulvaney, “Effect of the solution refractive index on the color of gold colloids,” Langmuir 10, 3427–3430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1976 (1)

Ph. Buffat and J. P. Borel, “Size effect on the melting temperature of gold particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 2287–2298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics4th ed. (Academic Press, 2007).

Berrier, E.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birss, V. I.

S. J. Xia and V. I. Birss, “A multi-technique study of compact and hydrous Au oxide growth in 0.1M sulfuric acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 500, 562–573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boo, S.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borel, J. P.

Ph. Buffat and J. P. Borel, “Size effect on the melting temperature of gold particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 2287–2298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bouazaoui, M.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

Brilland, L.

Buffat, Ph.

Ph. Buffat and J. P. Borel, “Size effect on the melting temperature of gold particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 2287–2298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, L.

Canat, G.

Capoen, B.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charron, E.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films : influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

Chaudhari, C.

Coulombier, Q

Courtheoux, L.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Debrus, S.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films : influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dhawan, A.

A. Dhawan and J. F. Muth, “Plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticles incorporated inside an optical fibre matrix,” Nanotechnology 17, 2504–2511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duhant, M.

El Amraoui, M.

El Hamzaoui, H.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Favre, A.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Flytzanis, Chr.

Han, W. T.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, C.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, S.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, K.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, K.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, S.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. J.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kito, C.

Liao, M.

Matsuoka, J.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mechin, D.

Miya, M.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, R.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

S. Underwood and P. Mulvaney, “Effect of the solution refractive index on the color of gold colloids,” Langmuir 10, 3427–3430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J. F.

A. Dhawan and J. F. Muth, “Plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticles incorporated inside an optical fibre matrix,” Nanotechnology 17, 2504–2511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasu, H.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. L.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Palpant, B.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films : influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pinçon, N.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films : influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prot, D.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films : influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

Renard, W.

Renversez, G.

Ricard, D.

Roussignol, Ph.

Russell, P. S. J.

Rustagi, K. C.

Sakaguchi, T.

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

Suzuki, T.

Toupin, P.

Troles, J.

Underwood, S.

S. Underwood and P. Mulvaney, “Effect of the solution refractive index on the color of gold colloids,” Langmuir 10, 3427–3430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watekar, P. R.

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, S. J.

S. J. Xia and V. I. Birss, “A multi-technique study of compact and hydrous Au oxide growth in 0.1M sulfuric acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 500, 562–573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, “Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films : influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

J. Matsuoka, R. Mizutani, S. Kaneko, H. Nasu, K. Kamiya, K. Kadono, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Sol-Gel processing and optical nonlinearity of gold colloid-doped silica glass,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 101, 53–58 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

S. J. Xia and V. I. Birss, “A multi-technique study of compact and hydrous Au oxide growth in 0.1M sulfuric acid solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 500, 562–573 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Ju, V. L. Nguyen, P. R. Watekar, B. H. Kim, C. Jeong, S. Boo, C. J. Kim, and W. T. Han, “Fabrication and optical characteristics of a novel optical fiber doped with the Au nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3555–3558 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

S. Underwood and P. Mulvaney, “Effect of the solution refractive index on the color of gold colloids,” Langmuir 10, 3427–3430 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. Dhawan and J. F. Muth, “Plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticles incorporated inside an optical fibre matrix,” Nanotechnology 17, 2504–2511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Ph. Buffat and J. P. Borel, “Size effect on the melting temperature of gold particles,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 2287–2298 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

JCPDS, file 00–004–0784

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics4th ed. (Academic Press, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of sol-gel Au-NPs -doped vitreous silica monolith. Inset: optical image of such a monolith.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HR-TEM image realized on a rod directly drawn from a monolith.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical attenuation of the Au-Nps -doped PCF measured by cutting back two different initial fiber lengths: 50 m (red line) and 2 m (black line). Inset: SEM image of the central part of the PCF. Au-NPs -doped region has been schematized by a yellow circle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of output intensity as a function of input intensity, at 532 nm, for two different optical fibers: undoped sol-gel -based pure silica core micro-structured fiber (open circles) and Au-Nps-doped fiber presented on Fig. 3 (open squares). In both cases, a linear fit of the first experimental data points is represented by a blue line. A fit of the experimental data points obtained for Au-NPs -doped PCF based on Eq. (2) is reported as a red line.

Equations (2)

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dI dz = ( α I + β I 2 )
I ( L ) = I ( 0 ) e α L 1 + I ( 0 ) β L e f f

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