Abstract

We propose a radial polarizer based on light refraction on a transparent isotropic sphere. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the circularly polarized light impinging on the sphere produces double charged optical vortex. The method is applied to generate optical vortices on a small scale using hollow micro-spheres produced by femtosecond laser in fused silica.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013601 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Structure of optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser-beam with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).
  8. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave-front laser-beams produced with a spiral waveplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of helical beams by use of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1875–1877 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, “Achromatic wavefront forming with space-variant polarizers: Application to phase singularities and light focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Oldenbourg, “Analysis of edge birefringence,” Biophys. J. 60(3), 629–641 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, “Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 171103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica,” Opt. Express 11(9), 1070–1079 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Watanabe and K. Itoh, “Motion of bubble in solid by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 10(14), 603–608 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  23. S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Bellouard and M.-O. Hongler, “Femtosecond-laser generation of self-organized bubble patterns in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6807–6821 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6(03), 350–356 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. C. Hardy, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69(1), 157–162 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. Török, “Imaging of small birefringent objects by polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 7–18 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard and M.-O. Hongler, “Femtosecond-laser generation of self-organized bubble patterns in fused silica,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6807–6821 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, “Achromatic wavefront forming with space-variant polarizers: Application to phase singularities and light focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, “Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Structure of optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica,” Opt. Express 11(9), 1070–1079 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Török, “Imaging of small birefringent objects by polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 7–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave-front laser-beams produced with a spiral waveplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. Oldenbourg, “Analysis of edge birefringence,” Biophys. J. 60(3), 629–641 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser-beam with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

1985 (1)

J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. C. Hardy, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69(1), 157–162 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6(03), 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barkauskas, M.

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser-beam with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave-front laser-beams produced with a spiral waveplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

Bliokh, K. Y.

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, M. J.

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6(03), 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, E.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueckner, H. J.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-T.

Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave-front laser-beams produced with a spiral waveplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Structure of optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Oliveira, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Daguzan, Ph.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danielius, R.

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Martini, F.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubov, M.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dultz, W.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, “Achromatic wavefront forming with space-variant polarizers: Application to phase singularities and light focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duraud, J. P.

J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, J. A.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, “Achromatic wavefront forming with space-variant polarizers: Application to phase singularities and light focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Frins, E.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, “Achromatic wavefront forming with space-variant polarizers: Application to phase singularities and light focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gecevicius, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glinka, Y. D.

Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, J. S.

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6(03), 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Graf, R.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Structure of optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griscom, D. L.

J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Guizard, S.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardy, S. C.

S. C. Hardy, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69(1), 157–162 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

Hirao, K.

S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hongler, M.-O.

Hu, X.

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, L.-P.

Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Juodkazis, S.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamata, M.

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, “Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kanehira, S.

S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave-front laser-beams produced with a spiral waveplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lara, D.

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gressus, C.

J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Le Moel, A.

J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-H.

Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinauskas, M.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meynadier, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murazawa, N.

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nagali, E.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niv, A.

Obara, M.

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, “Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oldenbourg, R.

R. Oldenbourg, “Analysis of edge birefringence,” Biophys. J. 60(3), 629–641 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostrovskaya, E. A.

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdrix, M.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, B.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poumellec, B.

Prade, B.

Qiu, J. R.

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Herrera, O. G.

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santamato, E.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitzer, H.

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, “Achromatic wavefront forming with space-variant polarizers: Application to phase singularities and light focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Si, J. H.

S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser-beam with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudrie, L.

Svirko, Y.

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolk, N. H.

Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, E.

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, “Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Török, P.

P. Török, “Imaging of small birefringent objects by polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 7–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser-beam with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vigouroux, J. P.

J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. S.

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave-front laser-beams produced with a spiral waveplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, N. O.

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6(03), 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zukauskas, A.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, “Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 21–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Svirko, M. Barkauskas, and R. Danielius, “High average power second harmonic generation in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 121502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, “Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, X. S. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. R. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

R. Oldenbourg, “Analysis of edge birefringence,” Biophys. J. 60(3), 629–641 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Vigouroux, J. P. Duraud, A. Le Moel, C. Le Gressus, and D. L. Griscom, “Electron trapping in amorphous SiO2 studied by charge buildup under electron bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(12), 5139–5144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

S. C. Hardy, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69(1), 157–162 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

N. O. Young, J. S. Goldstein, and M. J. Block, “The motion of bubbles in a vertical temperature gradient,” J. Fluid Mech. 6(03), 350–356 (1959).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser-beam with screw dislocations in their wave-fronts,” JETP Lett. 52, 429–431 (1990).

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Kanehira, J. H. Si, J. R. Qiu, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Periodic nanovoid structures via femtosecond laser irradiation,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1591–1595 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wave-front laser-beams produced with a spiral waveplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5-6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Török, “Imaging of small birefringent objects by polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 181(1-3), 7–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Ferrari, W. Dultz, H. Schmitzer, and E. Frins, “Achromatic wavefront forming with space-variant polarizers: Application to phase singularities and light focusing,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 053815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Glinka, S.-H. Lin, L.-P. Hwang, Y.-T. Chen, and N. H. Tolk, “Size effect in self-trapped exciton photoluminescence from SiO2-based nanoscale materials,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085421 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

E. Brasselet, N. Murazawa, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Optical vortices from liquid crystal droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Structure of optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, K. Y. Bliokh, E. A. Ostrovskaya, and C. Dainty, “Optical nanoprobing via spin-orbit interaction of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(25), 253601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Left) Schematic representation of light ray impinging a void embedded in glass. (Right) Transmission at the glass/air interface for s and p polarized light versus angle of incidence θ. The black curve represents differential transmission, which in the case of incident circular polarization produces partially linear (p) polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical vortex generation on an isotropic sphere. Incident circularly polarized light with plane front (l = 0) after refraction on a spherical surface is partially converted into an optical vortex with the orbital angular momentum l = 2ħ. (b, c) Wave-front profiles of incident and transmitted electric field modelled using the Jones matrix formalism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Left) Glass modification after single pulses (enhanced contrast). (Right) Cross-sections of femtosecond laser-induced structures. The number of pulses is indicated above. The laser beam is entering from the top.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Abrio image represented in pseudo colour showing direction of the slow axis (see inset), of the structure formed by femtosecond laser in silica glass (exposition 0.01 s). b) Corresponding schematic of the heat-affected regions created by single (left) and multi-pulse (right) irradiation. Red arrows indicate stress directions and blue ones show stressed material flow inducing compaction. Note that for single pulses the temperature is nearly-uniform along the quasi-cylindrical region axis while the stress distribution is dumbbell shaped (shown in grey). Tensile failure at the hot region ends leads to the consecutive chain rupture between the points 1 and 2 with creation of one or several voids 3. c) Top view of the same structure (a) with corresponding Abrio image (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical setups for optical vortex observation. P – polarizer, C – condenser, S – sample, O – objective. Vortex patterns (measured and modeled), observed under left and right handed polarizations, show mirror symmetry indicating reverse of orbital momentum sign.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multiple vortex conversion with an array of micro-voids (period 10 μm).

Equations (5)

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E r e f = ( t p ( θ ) t s ( θ ) ) E l i n e a r + t s ( θ ) E c i r c u l a r ,
t p ( θ ) t s ( θ ) = 2 ( n 1 2 n 2 2 1 ) a ( θ ) cos θ n 1 n 2 ( cos 2 θ + a 2 ( θ ) ) + ( n 1 2 n 2 2 + 1 ) a ( θ ) cos θ ,
a ( θ ) = 1 ( n 1 n 2 sin θ ) 2 .
M = ( cos 2 ϕ cos ϕ sin ϕ cos ϕ sin ϕ sin 2 ϕ ) ,
E l i n e a r = M E i n = 1 2 E 0 e i 2 ϕ ( 1 i ) + 1 2 E 0 ( 1 i ) .

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