Abstract

A two-dimensional (2D) spectral SPR sensor based on a polarization control scheme is reported in this paper. The polarization control configuration converts the phase difference between p- and s- polarization occurring at surface plasmon resonance (SPR) into corresponding color responses in spectral SPR images. A sensor resolution of 2.7 x 10−6 RIU has been demonstrated, which corresponds to more than one order of magnitude resolution improvement (26 times) comparing to existing 2D spectral SPR sensors. Multiplex array detection has also been demonstrated with the spectral SPR imaging sensor. In a 8 x 4 sensor array, 32 samples with different refractive index values were monitored simultaneously. Detection on bovine serum albumin (BSA) antigen-antibody binding further demonstrated the multiplex detection capability of the 2D spectral SPR sensor for bio-molecular interactions. The detection limit is found to be 21ng/ml, which is 36 times better than the detection limit previously reported by phase imaging SPR sensors. In light of the advantages of high sensitivity, 2D multiplex detection and real-time response, the spectral SPR imaging sensor can find promising applications in rapid, high throughput, non-labeling and multiplex detection of protein array for proteomics studies, biomarker screening, disease prognosis, and drug discovery.

© 2011 OSA

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2008

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein arrays with a dual-function SPR biosensor composed of surface plasmon microscopy and SPR spectroscopy based on white light,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 113–119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, J. Hyun, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Development of a scanning surface plasmon microscope based on white light for analysis of a wide range of protein arrays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131(1), 241–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, P. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, F. Guo, and C. Lin, “Application of 2-D spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant (EHL) films,” Tribol. Int. 41(5), 356–366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. H. Lee, Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, F. G. Tseng, and G. B. Lee, “Microfluidic systems integrated with two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance phase imaging systems for microarray immunoassay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(4), 466–472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, M. J. Lee, U. R. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of blood proteins on protein arrays with a spectral surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 7(1), 102–107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, T. T. Yu, Y. K. Suen, W. W. Y. Chow, S. Y. Wu, W. C. Law, W. Yuan, W. J. Li, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Two-dimensional biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46(12), 2325–2332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, D. G. Hong, H. I. Jung, and K. S. Ha, “Application of spectral SPR imaging for the surface analysis of C-reactive protein binding,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 673–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Srivastava, O. Eidelman, C. Jozwik, C. Paweletz, W. Huang, P. L. Zeitlin, and H. B. Pollard, “Serum proteomic signature for cystic fibrosis using an antibody microarray platform,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 87(4), 303–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of two-dimensional spectral surface plasmon resonance to imaging of pressure distribution in elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 45(23), 5819–5826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, and S. Y. Wu, “Application of surface plasmon resonance sensing to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 44(23), 4830–4837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of spectral surface plasmon resonance to gas pressure sensing,” Opt. Eng. 44(12), 124403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, D. Wang, X. Wei, X. Ding, W. Liao, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1–2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Angenendt, “Progress in protein and antibody microarray technology,” Drug Discov. Today 10(7), 503–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Sensitivity of ex situ and in situ spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors in the analysis of protein arrays,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(11), 2189–2196 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, H. Vaisocherová, J. Dostálek, and M. Piliarik, “Multi-analyte surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Methods 37(1), 26–36 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 96(3), 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, S. J. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(2), 161–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Haab, “Methods and applications of antibody microarrays in cancer research,” Proteomics 3(11), 2116–2122 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. P. Huang, R. Huang, Y. Fan, and Y. Lin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple cytokines from conditioned media and patient’s sera by an antibody-based protein array system,” Anal. Biochem. 294(1), 55–62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ge, “UPA, a universal protein array system for quantitative detection of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA and protein-ligand interactions,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(2), 3e (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Homola and S. S. Yee, “Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 51(1–3), 331–339 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1978

A. R. Smith, “Color gamut transform pairs,” Comput. Graph. 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974

E. Kretschmann, “The determination of the optical constants of metals by the excitation of surface plasmons,” Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1974).

1968

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216(4), 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anderberg, J. M.

M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angenendt, P.

P. Angenendt, “Progress in protein and antibody microarray technology,” Drug Discov. Today 10(7), 503–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beloglazov, A. A.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bray-Ward, P.

G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buechler, K. F.

M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. S.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, P. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, F. Guo, and C. Lin, “Application of 2-D spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant (EHL) films,” Tribol. Int. 41(5), 356–366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of two-dimensional spectral surface plasmon resonance to imaging of pressure distribution in elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 45(23), 5819–5826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, and S. Y. Wu, “Application of surface plasmon resonance sensing to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 44(23), 4830–4837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of spectral surface plasmon resonance to gas pressure sensing,” Opt. Eng. 44(12), 124403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. L.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. J.

K. H. Lee, Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, F. G. Tseng, and G. B. Lee, “Microfluidic systems integrated with two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance phase imaging systems for microarray immunoassay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(4), 466–472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, W. W. Y.

Chowdhury, U.

T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlen, J. R.

M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, X.

X. Yu, D. Wang, X. Wei, X. Ding, W. Liao, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1–2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dostálek, J.

J. Homola, H. Vaisocherová, J. Dostálek, and M. Piliarik, “Multi-analyte surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Methods 37(1), 26–36 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dürr, M.

T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eidelman, O.

M. Srivastava, O. Eidelman, C. Jozwik, C. Paweletz, W. Huang, P. L. Zeitlin, and H. B. Pollard, “Serum proteomic signature for cystic fibrosis using an antibody microarray platform,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 87(4), 303–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

R. P. Huang, R. Huang, Y. Fan, and Y. Lin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple cytokines from conditioned media and patient’s sera by an antibody-based protein array system,” Anal. Biochem. 294(1), 55–62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ge, H.

H. Ge, “UPA, a universal protein array system for quantitative detection of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA and protein-ligand interactions,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(2), 3e (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, P. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, F. Guo, and C. Lin, “Application of 2-D spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant (EHL) films,” Tribol. Int. 41(5), 356–366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K. S.

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, J. Hyun, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Development of a scanning surface plasmon microscope based on white light for analysis of a wide range of protein arrays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131(1), 241–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein arrays with a dual-function SPR biosensor composed of surface plasmon microscopy and SPR spectroscopy based on white light,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 113–119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, M. J. Lee, U. R. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of blood proteins on protein arrays with a spectral surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 7(1), 102–107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, D. G. Hong, H. I. Jung, and K. S. Ha, “Application of spectral SPR imaging for the surface analysis of C-reactive protein binding,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 673–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
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J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, J. Hyun, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Development of a scanning surface plasmon microscope based on white light for analysis of a wide range of protein arrays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131(1), 241–246 (2008).
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M. Srivastava, O. Eidelman, C. Jozwik, C. Paweletz, W. Huang, P. L. Zeitlin, and H. B. Pollard, “Serum proteomic signature for cystic fibrosis using an antibody microarray platform,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 87(4), 303–310 (2006).
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J. S. Yuk, D. G. Hong, H. I. Jung, and K. S. Ha, “Application of spectral SPR imaging for the surface analysis of C-reactive protein binding,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 673–675 (2006).
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J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein arrays with a dual-function SPR biosensor composed of surface plasmon microscopy and SPR spectroscopy based on white light,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 113–119 (2008).
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J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
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J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
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J. S. Yuk, M. J. Lee, U. R. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of blood proteins on protein arrays with a spectral surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 7(1), 102–107 (2007).
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J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
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J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein arrays with a dual-function SPR biosensor composed of surface plasmon microscopy and SPR spectroscopy based on white light,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 113–119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, J. Hyun, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Development of a scanning surface plasmon microscope based on white light for analysis of a wide range of protein arrays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131(1), 241–246 (2008).
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J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
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J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Sensitivity of ex situ and in situ spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors in the analysis of protein arrays,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(11), 2189–2196 (2005).
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J. S. Yuk, S. J. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(2), 161–164 (2003).
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H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 96(3), 554–559 (2003).
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M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
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Lee, G. B.

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J. S. Yuk, S. J. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(2), 161–164 (2003).
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J. S. Yuk, S. J. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(2), 161–164 (2003).
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K. H. Lee, Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, F. G. Tseng, and G. B. Lee, “Microfluidic systems integrated with two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance phase imaging systems for microarray immunoassay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(4), 466–472 (2007).
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J. S. Yuk, M. J. Lee, U. R. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of blood proteins on protein arrays with a spectral surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 7(1), 102–107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
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Lin, Y.

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M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
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M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
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P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
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Piliarik, M.

J. Homola, H. Vaisocherová, J. Dostálek, and M. Piliarik, “Multi-analyte surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Methods 37(1), 26–36 (2005).
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Pollard, H. B.

M. Srivastava, O. Eidelman, C. Jozwik, C. Paweletz, W. Huang, P. L. Zeitlin, and H. B. Pollard, “Serum proteomic signature for cystic fibrosis using an antibody microarray platform,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 87(4), 303–310 (2006).
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M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
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T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
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G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
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P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
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P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
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P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
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T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
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G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
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T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
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G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
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T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
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M. Srivastava, O. Eidelman, C. Jozwik, C. Paweletz, W. Huang, P. L. Zeitlin, and H. B. Pollard, “Serum proteomic signature for cystic fibrosis using an antibody microarray platform,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 87(4), 303–310 (2006).
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P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
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T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
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Su, Y. D.

K. H. Lee, Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, F. G. Tseng, and G. B. Lee, “Microfluidic systems integrated with two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance phase imaging systems for microarray immunoassay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(4), 466–472 (2007).
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Suen, Y. K.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, T. T. Yu, Y. K. Suen, W. W. Y. Chow, S. Y. Wu, W. C. Law, W. Yuan, W. J. Li, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Two-dimensional biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46(12), 2325–2332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, F. G.

K. H. Lee, Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, F. G. Tseng, and G. B. Lee, “Microfluidic systems integrated with two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance phase imaging systems for microarray immunoassay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(4), 466–472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaisocherová, H.

J. Homola, H. Vaisocherová, J. Dostálek, and M. Piliarik, “Multi-analyte surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Methods 37(1), 26–36 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valeiko, M. V.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Valkirs, G. E.

M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visintin, I.

G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

X. Yu, D. Wang, X. Wei, X. Ding, W. Liao, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1–2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ward, D. C.

G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, X.

X. Yu, D. Wang, X. Wei, X. Ding, W. Liao, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1–2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. L.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, P. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, F. Guo, and C. Lin, “Application of 2-D spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant (EHL) films,” Tribol. Int. 41(5), 356–366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, T. T. Yu, Y. K. Suen, W. W. Y. Chow, S. Y. Wu, W. C. Law, W. Yuan, W. J. Li, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Two-dimensional biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46(12), 2325–2332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of two-dimensional spectral surface plasmon resonance to imaging of pressure distribution in elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 45(23), 5819–5826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, and S. Y. Wu, “Application of surface plasmon resonance sensing to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 44(23), 4830–4837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of spectral surface plasmon resonance to gas pressure sensing,” Opt. Eng. 44(12), 124403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, P. L.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, P. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, F. Guo, and C. Lin, “Application of 2-D spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant (EHL) films,” Tribol. Int. 41(5), 356–366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, P. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, F. Guo, and C. Lin, “Application of 2-D spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant (EHL) films,” Tribol. Int. 41(5), 356–366 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, T. T. Yu, Y. K. Suen, W. W. Y. Chow, S. Y. Wu, W. C. Law, W. Yuan, W. J. Li, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Two-dimensional biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46(12), 2325–2332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of two-dimensional spectral surface plasmon resonance to imaging of pressure distribution in elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 45(23), 5819–5826 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, and S. Y. Wu, “Application of surface plasmon resonance sensing to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant films,” Appl. Opt. 44(23), 4830–4837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of spectral surface plasmon resonance to gas pressure sensing,” Opt. Eng. 44(12), 124403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xinsheng, Z.

X. Yu, D. Wang, X. Wei, X. Ding, W. Liao, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1–2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola and S. S. Yee, “Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 51(1–3), 331–339 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yi, S. J.

J. S. Yuk, S. J. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(2), 161–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. T.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, D. Wang, X. Wei, X. Ding, W. Liao, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1–2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, W.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, T. T. Yu, Y. K. Suen, W. W. Y. Chow, S. Y. Wu, W. C. Law, W. Yuan, W. J. Li, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Two-dimensional biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance phase imaging,” Appl. Opt. 46(12), 2325–2332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, L.

G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuk, J. S.

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein arrays with a dual-function SPR biosensor composed of surface plasmon microscopy and SPR spectroscopy based on white light,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 113–119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, J. Hyun, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Development of a scanning surface plasmon microscope based on white light for analysis of a wide range of protein arrays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131(1), 241–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, M. J. Lee, U. R. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of blood proteins on protein arrays with a spectral surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 7(1), 102–107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, D. G. Hong, H. I. Jung, and K. S. Ha, “Application of spectral SPR imaging for the surface analysis of C-reactive protein binding,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 673–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Sensitivity of ex situ and in situ spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors in the analysis of protein arrays,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(11), 2189–2196 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, S. J. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(2), 161–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeitlin, P. L.

M. Srivastava, O. Eidelman, C. Jozwik, C. Paweletz, W. Huang, P. L. Zeitlin, and H. B. Pollard, “Serum proteomic signature for cystic fibrosis using an antibody microarray platform,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 87(4), 303–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem.

R. P. Huang, R. Huang, Y. Fan, and Y. Lin, “Simultaneous detection of multiple cytokines from conditioned media and patient’s sera by an antibody-based protein array system,” Anal. Biochem. 294(1), 55–62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biosens. Bioelectron.

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Sensitivity of ex situ and in situ spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors in the analysis of protein arrays,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(11), 2189–2196 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Yuk, H. S. Kim, J. W. Jung, S. H. Jung, S. J. Lee, W. J. Kim, J. A. Han, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein interactions on protein arrays by a novel spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(8), 1521–1528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Lee, Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, F. G. Tseng, and G. B. Lee, “Microfluidic systems integrated with two-dimensional surface plasmon resonance phase imaging systems for microarray immunoassay,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(4), 466–472 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem.

M. A. Reynolds, H. J. Kirchick, J. R. Dahlen, J. M. Anderberg, P. H. McPherson, K. K. Nakamura, D. T. Laskowitz, G. E. Valkirs, and K. F. Buechler, “Early biomarkers of stroke,” Clin. Chem. 49(10), 1733–1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Graph.

A. R. Smith, “Color gamut transform pairs,” Comput. Graph. 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

J. S. Yuk, M. J. Lee, U. R. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of blood proteins on protein arrays with a spectral surface plasmon resonance biosensor,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 7(1), 102–107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drug Discov. Today

P. Angenendt, “Progress in protein and antibody microarray technology,” Drug Discov. Today 10(7), 503–511 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrophoresis

T. O. Joos, M. Schrenk, P. Höpfl, K. Kröger, U. Chowdhury, D. Stoll, D. Schörner, M. Dürr, K. Herick, S. Rupp, K. Sohn, and H. Hämmerle, “A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics,” Electrophoresis 21(13), 2641–2650 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Methods

J. Homola, H. Vaisocherová, J. Dostálek, and M. Piliarik, “Multi-analyte surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Methods 37(1), 26–36 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Genet. Metab.

M. Srivastava, O. Eidelman, C. Jozwik, C. Paweletz, W. Huang, P. L. Zeitlin, and H. B. Pollard, “Serum proteomic signature for cystic fibrosis using an antibody microarray platform,” Mol. Genet. Metab. 87(4), 303–310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucleic Acids Res.

H. Ge, “UPA, a universal protein array system for quantitative detection of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA and protein-ligand interactions,” Nucleic Acids Res. 28(2), 3e (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, S. Y. Wu, and C. Lin, “Application of spectral surface plasmon resonance to gas pressure sensing,” Opt. Eng. 44(12), 124403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

G. Mor, I. Visintin, Y. Lai, H. Zhao, P. Schwartz, T. Rutherford, L. Yue, P. Bray-Ward, and D. C. Ward, “Serum protein markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(21), 7677–7682 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proteomics

B. B. Haab, “Methods and applications of antibody microarrays in cancer research,” Proteomics 3(11), 2116–2122 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, “Printing proteins as microarrays for high-throughput function determination,” Science 289(5485), 1760–1763 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

P. I. Nikitin, A. N. Grigorenko, A. A. Beloglazov, M. V. Valeiko, A. I. Savchuk, O. A. Savchuk, G. Steiner, C. Kuhne, A. Huebner, and R. Salzer, “Surface plasmon resonance interferometry for micro-array biosensing,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1–3), 189–193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

H. P. Ho and W. W. Lam, “Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 96(3), 554–559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, D. Wang, X. Wei, X. Ding, W. Liao, and Z. Xinsheng, “A surface plasmon resonance imaging interferometry for protein micro-array detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 108(1–2), 765–771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, S. J. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 94(2), 161–164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Analysis of protein arrays with a dual-function SPR biosensor composed of surface plasmon microscopy and SPR spectroscopy based on white light,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 113–119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, D. G. Hong, H. I. Jung, and K. S. Ha, “Application of spectral SPR imaging for the surface analysis of C-reactive protein binding,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 673–675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Nelson, K. S. Johnston, and S. S. Yee, “High sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on phase detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 187–191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola and S. S. Yee, “Novel polarization control scheme for spectral surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 51(1–3), 331–339 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, J. W. Jung, J. Hyun, Y. M. Kim, and K. S. Ha, “Development of a scanning surface plasmon microscope based on white light for analysis of a wide range of protein arrays,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 131(1), 241–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tribol. Int.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, K. S. Chan, P. L. Wong, S. Y. Wu, F. Guo, and C. Lin, “Application of 2-D spectral surface plasmon resonance imaging to studying elastohydrodynamic lubricant (EHL) films,” Tribol. Int. 41(5), 356–366 (2008).
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Other

C. L. Wong, Imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPR) photonic sensors, Thesis (Ph.D.), The City University of Hong Kong, 2007.

D. R. Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC Press, 2001).

F. van der Heijden, Image Based Measurement System (John Wiley & Sons, 1994).

T. Bose, Digital Signal and Image Processing (Wiley, 2004).

P. Yeh, Optical waves in layered media, (Wiley, 1988).

H. Eugene, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 2001).

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental scheme of the Spectral SPR imaging sensor based on the polarization control scheme (b) The orientation angle shift α of the ellipse of the light, which is produced by the phase difference Δ φ between the p- and s- polarization occurring at surface plasmon excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral SPR images for different concentrations of salt solutions. (a) water (0%) (b) 1% salt solution (c) 2% salt solution (d) 3% salt solution (e) 4% salt solution (f) 7% salt solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrums measured for different concentrations of salt solutions ranged from 0% - 7%. (Normalized will s- polarization spectrum).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The response curve of the spectral SPR imaging sensor in the refractive index range between 1.3333 - 1.3454 RIU. It shows the sensor responds for different concentration salt solutions ranged from 0%-7%. It shows that the sensor response increases with increasing refractive index values (RIU) and a linear response (from 23.1 to 61.2 Hue unit) is shown in the refractive index range between 1.3333 – 1.3365 RIU. The error bar is obtained from the standard deviation (S.D.) between 5 averaged measurement data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectral SPR image taken for three different concentrations (0%, 2% and 7%) of salt solution spots. Different color responses have been demonstrated for different concentration solutions. Deep red, deep green and green color responses are shown for 0%, 2% and 7% salt solution spots respectively. (b) Hue mapping of the spectral SPR image. The responses of 0%, 2% and 7% salt solution spots are 25.7, 69.1 and 83.4 (hue unit) (average value from all sensing sites).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Bovine serum albumin (BSA) antigen (1mg/ml) was immobilized in four different locations of the protein array (red spots). The non-specific protein sample (glucose oxidase, 1mg/ml) served as the negative control of the experiment (white spots). (b) Spectral SPR image of the protein array, when the protein was kept in buffer solution. (c) Spectral SPR image of the protein array, which is taken 41 minutes after the injection of BSA antibody (0.01mg/ml). The specific binding between BSA antigen-antibody changed the spectral responses in the BSA antigen sites from red to green color, while no significant color variation were observed in the non-specific sensor sites (glucose oxidase).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The Measurement Standard Deviation of Different Concentration Salt Solution

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k s p = ( ω s p / c ) ( ( ε m ε s ) / ( ε m + ε s ) ) 1 / 2
k i n = ( 2 π / c λ ) sin θ ε p 1 / 2
k i n = k s p
( 2 π / λ ) ε p 1 / 2 sin θ S P R = ω s p ( ( ε m ε s ) / ( ε m + ε s ) ) 1 / 2
r p = | r p | e i φ p
r s = | r s | e i φ s
r p ( s ) = r 12 + r 23 exp ( 2 i k z 2 d ) 1 + r 12 r 23 exp ( 2 i k z 2 d )
r i j = Z i Z j Z i + Z j
where  Z i = ε i / k z i  for  p -polarization
k z i = k o ( ε i ε 1 sin 2 θ i n ) 1 / 2
Δ φ = ( φ p φ s )
E s = E s o cos ( k z ω t )
E p = E p o cos ( k z ω t + ϕ )
( E p E p o ) 2 + ( E s E s o ) 2 2 ( E p E p o ) ( E s E s o ) cos ϕ = sin 2 ϕ
tan 2 α = ( 2 E s o E p o E 2 s o E 2 p o ) cos ϕ
Δ ϕ = ( ϕ p ϕ s )
E s = E s o cos ( k z ω t )
E p = E p o cos ( k z ω t + ϕ + Δ φ )
( E p E p o ) 2 + ( E s E s o ) 2 2 ( E p E p o ) ( E s E s o ) cos ( ϕ + Δ φ ) = sin 2 ( ϕ + Δ φ )
tan 2 α = ( 2 E s o E p o E 2 s o E 2 p o ) cos ( ϕ + Δ φ )
r e s o l u t i o n = R I U r a n g e r e s p o n s e ( Δ H u e ) × m e a s u r e m e n t S . D .
Detection limit = Concentration of bio-molecule Sensor response × Measurement stability

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