Abstract

We design and fabricate a four-port optical router, which is composed of eight microring-resonator-based switching elements, four optical waveguides and six waveguide crossings. The extinction ratio is about 13 dB for the through port and larger than 30 dB for the drop port. The crosstalk of the measured optical links is less than −13 dB. The average tuning power consumption is about 10.37 mW and the tuning efficiency is 5.398 mW/nm. The routing functionality and optical signal integrity are verified by transmitting a 12.5 Gb/s PRBS optical signal.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (6)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Assefa, F. N. A. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1620–1622 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, M. H. Khan, L. Fan, L. Zhao, Y. Xuan, J. Ouyang, L. T. Varghese, and M. H. Qi, “Eight-channel reconfigurable microring filters with tunable frequency, extinction ratio and bandwidth,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18067–18076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

P. Sanchis, P. Villalba, F. Cuesta, A. Håkansson, A. Griol, J. V. Galán, A. Brimont, and J. Martí, “Highly efficient crossing structure for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2760–2762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ang, Y. L.

Assefa, S.

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brimont, A.

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, P.

Cuda, D.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, F.

Doany, F. E.

Dong, P.

Fan, L.

Fang, Q.

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galán, J. V.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gavilanes, G.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Griol, A.

Håkansson, A.

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jahnes, C. V.

Ji, R. Q.

Jia, L. X.

Jiang, Z. Y.

Kash, J. A.

Khan, M. H.

Kopp, V. I.

Lee, B. G.

Lim, S. T.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L.

Liu, Y. L.

Lu, Y. Y.

Luo, X.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neri, F.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ong, E. A.

Ouyang, J.

Petracca, M.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Png, C. E.

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu and A. W. Poon, “Silicon cross-connect filters using microring resonator coupled multimode-interference-based waveguide crossings,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8649–8657 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preble, S. F.

Qi, M. H.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Schmidt, B.

Schow, C. L.

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Shen, H.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singer, J.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y. H.

Van Campenhout, J.

Varghese, L. T.

Villalba, P.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, H.

Xia, F. N. A.

S. Assefa, F. N. A. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Xu and A. W. Poon, “Silicon cross-connect filters using microring resonator coupled multimode-interference-based waveguide crossings,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8649–8657 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Xuan, Y.

Yang, L.

Yang, M.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Zhang, J.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, L.

Zhou, P.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband operation of nanophotonic router for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 926–928 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. N. A. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

H. L. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, and M. Lipson, “All-optical compact silicon comb switch,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9600–9605 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Lim, C. E. Png, E. A. Ong, and Y. L. Ang, “Single mode, polarization-independent submicron silicon waveguides based on geometrical adjustments,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11061–11072 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xu and A. W. Poon, “Silicon cross-connect filters using microring resonator coupled multimode-interference-based waveguide crossings,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8649–8657 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, M. H. Khan, L. Fan, L. Zhao, Y. Xuan, J. Ouyang, L. T. Varghese, and M. H. Qi, “Eight-channel reconfigurable microring filters with tunable frequency, extinction ratio and bandwidth,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18067–18076 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Non-blocking 4x4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks,” Opt. Express 19(1), 47–54 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded microresonator-based matrix switch for silicon on-chip optical interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ITuD2.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a bidirectional four-port non-blocking optical router based on MRRs and (b) one waveguide coupled with 2(N-2) MMRs from the input port to the output port in N-port non-blocking router.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The contours of drop-losses ILd for MRR coupled with parallel waveguides (a) and MRR coupled with crossing waveguides (b), through-loss ILt (c), 3-dB bandwidth (d), extinction ratio ERd (e) and ERt (f) with the loss of the ring and coupling coefficient. In the simulation, the radius of the MRR is 10 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Process flow schematics for the optical router.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electronic micrograph (SEM) of (a) the SSC, (b) the parallel MRR, (c) the crossing connected MRR, and (d) the MMI-based waveguide crossing. (e) Micrograph of the four-port non-blocking optical router.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra at (a) West output port and (b) North output port with light injected from North input port and West input port respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Resonance shift of the MRR with the applied power, as well as (b) the tuning efficiency of the heater.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Response spectra at (a)-(c) East/South/West output ports with light injected from North input port and at (d)-(f) East/South/North output ports with light injected from West input port. Black curve/red curve shows spectrum before/after the corresponding path is set up.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission spectra of the optical router when North-East, North–south, North-West, West-East, West-South and West-North links are set up respectively. The two rows respectively represent transmission spectra from the North and West input ports. The black, red, blue, and cyan curves represent transmission to the East, South, West and North output ports, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Back-to-back eye diagram and eye diagrams at corresponding output ports for 6 measurable paths, using 12.5 Gb/s 27-1 PRBS optical signal at the wavelength of 1548.1 nm

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Twelve unidirectional optical links in the four-port optical router

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Table 2 Statistical analysis of the crossings used in the proposed structure and the previously demonstrated structure

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Table 3 Initial resonance, resistance of heater and on-state power consumption for each MRR comprising the optical router

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Table 4 Nine routing states of the optical router and corresponding power consumption (Ei/o, Si/o, Wi/o and Ni/o indicate East, South, West and North input/output ports respectively)

Equations (2)

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P d = κ 4 α x 1 2 α t 2 cos θ + α 2 t 4
P t = t 2 2 α t 2 cos θ + t 2 α 2 1 2 α t 2 cos θ + α 2 t 4

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