Abstract

We report on transferring the concept of light-field streaking with intense terahertz fields from free-electron lasers to the laboratory scale. Utilizing a commercial laser system, synchronized 300μm terahertz and 13nm extreme ultraviolet pulses are generated by optical rectification and high harmonic generation, respectively. The terahertz fields are sufficiently strong to support electron wave packet sampling with a few fs resolution. The capability of this approach is demonstrated by measuring the duration of electron pulses formed by direct photoemission from a neon gas target.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hebling, G Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large-area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  12. K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. R. Gouy, “Sur une propriete nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 110, 1251 (1890).
  15. J. M. Schins, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B Carre, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 011401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, G Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J Kuhl, “Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large-area THz-pulse generation,” Opt. Express 10, 1161–1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

1999

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B Carre, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1890

C. R. Gouy, “Sur une propriete nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 110, 1251 (1890).

Agostini, P.

Almási, G

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azima, A.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B Carre, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Budzyn, F.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carre, B

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B Carre, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chini, M.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cirelli, C.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fie, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flammini, R.

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H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
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M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
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Krausz, F.

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
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M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
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Mashiko, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
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J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
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M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
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Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B Carre, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (1999).
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Muller, H. G.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H.-G.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagele, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neppl, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaides, C. A.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pazourek, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdrix, M.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B Carre, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Persson, A.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, A. N.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plnjes, E.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossbach, J.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B Carre, “High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 173903 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

Schlie, M.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, H.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schütte, B.

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. R.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starczewski, T.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varjú, K.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Measurement and control of the frequency chirp rate of high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 021801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wahlström, C.-G.

C.-G. Wahlström, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, P. Salières, P. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, P.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieland, M.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hende, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328, 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
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Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and P. R. Smith, “Free space radiation from electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 506–508 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
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Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996).
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C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris

C. R. Gouy, “Sur une propriete nouvelle des ondes lumineuses,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 110, 1251 (1890).

J. Chem. Phys.

M. Krikunova, T. Maltezopoulos, P. Wessels, M. Schlie, A. Azima, M. Wieland, and M. Drescher, “Ultrafast photofragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine driven with timed XUV and near-infrared light pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 134, 024313 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. D Khan, S. Chen, S. Gilbertson, X. Feng, H. Mashiko, and Z. Chang, “Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses,” J. Phys. B 42, 134007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

U. Frühling, M. Wieland, M. Gensch, T. Gebert, B. Schütte, M. Krikunova, R. Kalms, F. Budzyn, O. Grimm, J. Rossbach, E. Plnjes, and M. Drescher, “Single-shot terahertz-field-driven X-ray streak camera,” Nat. Photonics 3, 523–528 (2009).
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Nature

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
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Opt. Express

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[CrossRef]

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Science

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. HHG (blue beam) and THz (red beam) pulses are collinearly focused into the interaction zone which consists of a neon gas jet. Two time-of-flight spectrometers detect the kinetic energies of the generated photoelectrons.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Series of neon 2p electron kinetic energy spectra obtained by a delay scan between the ionizing XUV pulse and the THz streaking field (false-color representation) detected at (a) left and (b) right TOF. Each spectrum was normalized to a constant area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the electric field transients obtained by electro-optic sampling and by the THz streaking method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoelectron spectra measured at the left detector (a) and at the right detector (b) without THz field. The main peak corresponds to the 59 th harmonic shifted by the neon 2p binding energy, while the peak on the right side results from the 61 st harmonic. When switching on the THz field, the spectra at the left (c) and right (d) detector show a broadening. (e),(f) Introducing a negative chirp to the fundamental laser leads to an increased negative linear chirp of the harmonic pulse. The streaking speed in (c),(d) was 46meV/fs and in (e),(f) it was 48meV/fs.

Equations (5)

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Δ p ( r , t ) = e t E T H z ( r , t ' ) d t ' = e A T H z ( r , t ) ,
Δ W | | ( t ) 2 W 0 m e e A T H z ( t ) ,
E X U V ( t ) = E X 0 e 2 ln 2 ( t / τ X ) 2 e i ( ω 0 t + c t 2 ) ,
σ X s t r e a k = σ X 0 2 + τ X 2 ( s 2 ± 4 c s ) ,
s = ( Δ W | | ) t 2 W 0 m e e E T H z ( t )

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