Abstract

An understanding of wind speed and direction as a function of height are critical to the proper modeling of atmospheric turbulence. We have used radiosonde data from launch sites near significant astronomical observatories and created mean profiles of wind speed and direction and have also computed Richardson number profiles. Using data from the last 30 years, we extend the 1977 Greenwood wind profile to include parameters that show seasonal variations and differences in location. The added information from our models is useful for the design of adaptive optics systems and other imaging systems. Our analysis of the Richardson number suggests that persistent turbulent layers may be inferred when low values are present in our long term averaged data. Knowledge of the presence of these layers may help with planning for adaptive optics and laser communications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Hufnagel, "Variations of Atmospheric Turbulence," in Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, (Optical Society of America, 1974), paper WA1-1.
  2. R. R. Beland, "Propagation through Atmospheric Optical Turbulence," in The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, F. G. Smith, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, 1993), Vo. 2, 158-232.
    [PubMed]
  3. E. M. Dewan, R. E. Good, R. Beland, and J. Brown, "A Model for C2 n (Optical Turbulence) Profiles Using Radiosonde Data," PL-TR-93-2043, (Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque 1993).
  4. G. I. Taylor, "The Spectrum of Turbulence," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 164, 476-490 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. Bufton, "Comparison of vertical profile turbulence structure with stellar observations," Appl. Opt. 12, 1785-1793 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. R. Parenti, and R. J. Sasiela, "Laser guide-star systems for astronomical applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 288-309 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE, 1998).
  8. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, (Academic, San Diego, 1998).
  9. D. P. Greenwood, "Bandwidth specification for adaptive optics systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 390 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. P. Greenwood and D. L. Fried, "Power Spectra Requirements for Wavefront-Compensative Systems," RADCTR-75-227, (Rome Air Development Center, Rome, 1975).
  11. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive optics for astronomical telescopes, (Oxford Univ., New York, 1998).
  12. P. K. Kundu, Fluid Mechanics, (Academic, San Diego, 1990).
  13. R. A. Fesen, "A high-altitude station-keeping astronomical platform," Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670T (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. E. Newell, J. W. Kidson, D. G. Vincent, and G. J. Boer, The general circulation of the tropical atmosphere and interactions with extratropical latitudes, (MIT, Cambridge, 1972) Vol. 1.
    [PubMed]
  15. P. Bely, "Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560-570 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Muñoz-Tuñón, A. M. Varela, and T. Mahoney, "Homogeneity of image quality at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory," N. Astron. Rev. 42, 409-416 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. W. Wilson, N. O’Mahony, C. Packham, and M. Azzaro, "The seeing at the William Herschel Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 309, 379-387 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. L. Walters and L. W. Bradford, "Measurements of r0 and τ0: two decades and 18 sites," Appl. Opt. 36, 7876-7886 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Sarazin and A. Tokovinin, "The statistics of isoplanatic angle and adaptive optics time constant derived from DIMMdata," in Beyond conventional adaptive optics: a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubin, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, 2002), 321-328.
  22. S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Carrasco, R. Avila, and A. Carramiñana, "High-altitude wind velocity at Sierra Negra and San Pedro Mártir," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 104-110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. García-Lorenzo, J. J. Fuensalida, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and E. Mendizabal, "Astronomical site ranking based on tropospheric wind statistics," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 849-858 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. A. Fesen, "A high-altitude station-keeping astronomical platform," Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670T (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. Carrasco, R. Avila, and A. Carramiñana, "High-altitude wind velocity at Sierra Negra and San Pedro Mártir," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 104-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. García-Lorenzo, J. J. Fuensalida, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and E. Mendizabal, "Astronomical site ranking based on tropospheric wind statistics," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 849-858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. W. Wilson, N. O’Mahony, C. Packham, and M. Azzaro, "The seeing at the William Herschel Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 309, 379-387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Muñoz-Tuñón, A. M. Varela, and T. Mahoney, "Homogeneity of image quality at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory," N. Astron. Rev. 42, 409-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. L. Walters and L. W. Bradford, "Measurements of r0 and τ0: two decades and 18 sites," Appl. Opt. 36, 7876-7886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. R. Parenti, and R. J. Sasiela, "Laser guide-star systems for astronomical applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 288-309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. Bely, "Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560-570 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. P. Greenwood, "Bandwidth specification for adaptive optics systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 390 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. L. Bufton, "Comparison of vertical profile turbulence structure with stellar observations," Appl. Opt. 12, 1785-1793 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1938 (1)

G. I. Taylor, "The Spectrum of Turbulence," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 164, 476-490 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Adamson, A. J.

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

E. Carrasco, R. Avila, and A. Carramiñana, "High-altitude wind velocity at Sierra Negra and San Pedro Mártir," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 104-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Azzaro, M.

R. W. Wilson, N. O’Mahony, C. Packham, and M. Azzaro, "The seeing at the William Herschel Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 309, 379-387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bely, P.

P. Bely, "Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560-570 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, L. W.

D. L. Walters and L. W. Bradford, "Measurements of r0 and τ0: two decades and 18 sites," Appl. Opt. 36, 7876-7886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

J. L. Bufton, "Comparison of vertical profile turbulence structure with stellar observations," Appl. Opt. 12, 1785-1793 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustos, E.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carramiñana, A.

E. Carrasco, R. Avila, and A. Carramiñana, "High-altitude wind velocity at Sierra Negra and San Pedro Mártir," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 104-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, E.

E. Carrasco, R. Avila, and A. Carramiñana, "High-altitude wind velocity at Sierra Negra and San Pedro Mártir," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 104-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chueca, S.

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chuter, T. C.

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M. J.

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Els, S.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fesen, R. A.

R. A. Fesen, "A high-altitude station-keeping astronomical platform," Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuensalida, J. J.

B. García-Lorenzo, J. J. Fuensalida, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and E. Mendizabal, "Astronomical site ranking based on tropospheric wind statistics," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 849-858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

García-Lorenzo, B.

B. García-Lorenzo, J. J. Fuensalida, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and E. Mendizabal, "Astronomical site ranking based on tropospheric wind statistics," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 849-858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greenwood, D. P.

D. P. Greenwood, "Bandwidth specification for adaptive optics systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 390 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hawarden, T. G.

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, T.

C. Muñoz-Tuñón, A. M. Varela, and T. Mahoney, "Homogeneity of image quality at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory," N. Astron. Rev. 42, 409-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mendizabal, E.

B. García-Lorenzo, J. J. Fuensalida, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and E. Mendizabal, "Astronomical site ranking based on tropospheric wind statistics," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 849-858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mendizábal, E. G.

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

B. García-Lorenzo, J. J. Fuensalida, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and E. Mendizabal, "Astronomical site ranking based on tropospheric wind statistics," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 849-858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Muñoz-Tuñón, A. M. Varela, and T. Mahoney, "Homogeneity of image quality at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory," N. Astron. Rev. 42, 409-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, N.

R. W. Wilson, N. O’Mahony, C. Packham, and M. Azzaro, "The seeing at the William Herschel Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 309, 379-387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Packham, C.

R. W. Wilson, N. O’Mahony, C. Packham, and M. Azzaro, "The seeing at the William Herschel Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 309, 379-387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parenti, R. R.

R. R. Parenti, and R. J. Sasiela, "Laser guide-star systems for astronomical applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 288-309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rees, N. P.

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riddle, R.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sasiela, R. J.

R. R. Parenti, and R. J. Sasiela, "Laser guide-star systems for astronomical applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 288-309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schöck, M.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seguel, J.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seigar, M. S.

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skidmore, W.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, G. I.

G. I. Taylor, "The Spectrum of Turbulence," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 164, 476-490 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Travouillon, T.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Varela, A. M.

C. Muñoz-Tuñón, A. M. Varela, and T. Mahoney, "Homogeneity of image quality at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory," N. Astron. Rev. 42, 409-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Varela, T.

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walters, D. L.

D. L. Walters and L. W. Bradford, "Measurements of r0 and τ0: two decades and 18 sites," Appl. Opt. 36, 7876-7886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. W.

R. W. Wilson, N. O’Mahony, C. Packham, and M. Azzaro, "The seeing at the William Herschel Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 309, 379-387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. L. Bufton, "Comparison of vertical profile turbulence structure with stellar observations," Appl. Opt. 12, 1785-1793 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Walters and L. W. Bradford, "Measurements of r0 and τ0: two decades and 18 sites," Appl. Opt. 36, 7876-7886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. P. Greenwood, "Bandwidth specification for adaptive optics systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 390 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

R. R. Parenti, and R. J. Sasiela, "Laser guide-star systems for astronomical applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 288-309 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

R. W. Wilson, N. O’Mahony, C. Packham, and M. Azzaro, "The seeing at the William Herschel Telescope," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 309, 379-387 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. García-Lorenzo, J. J. Fuensalida, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, and E. Mendizabal, "Astronomical site ranking based on tropospheric wind statistics," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 849-858 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Astron. Rev. (1)

C. Muñoz-Tuñón, A. M. Varela, and T. Mahoney, "Homogeneity of image quality at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory," N. Astron. Rev. 42, 409-416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

G. I. Taylor, "The Spectrum of Turbulence," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 164, 476-490 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. S. Seigar, A. J. Adamson, N. P. Rees, T. G. Hawarden, M. J. Currie, and T. C. Chuter, "Seeing statistics at the upgraded 3.8m UK Infrared Telescope," Proc. SPIE 4844, 366 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fesen, "A high-altitude station-keeping astronomical platform," Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670T (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chueca, B. García-Lorenzo, E. G. Mendizábal, T. Varela, J. J. Fuensalida, and C. Muñoz-Tuñón, "Input parameters of the HV model above Canarian observatories," Proc. SPIE 5237, 159-166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (3)

E. Carrasco, R. Avila, and A. Carramiñana, "High-altitude wind velocity at Sierra Negra and San Pedro Mártir," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 104-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Skidmore, S. Els, T. Travouillon, R. Riddle, M. Schöck, E. Bustos, J. Seguel, and D. Walker, "Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1151-1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bely, "Weather and seeing on Mauna Kea," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 560-570 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

R. E. Newell, J. W. Kidson, D. G. Vincent, and G. J. Boer, The general circulation of the tropical atmosphere and interactions with extratropical latitudes, (MIT, Cambridge, 1972) Vol. 1.
[PubMed]

R. E. Hufnagel, "Variations of Atmospheric Turbulence," in Topical Meeting on Optical Propagation through Turbulence, (Optical Society of America, 1974), paper WA1-1.

R. R. Beland, "Propagation through Atmospheric Optical Turbulence," in The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, F. G. Smith, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, 1993), Vo. 2, 158-232.
[PubMed]

E. M. Dewan, R. E. Good, R. Beland, and J. Brown, "A Model for C2 n (Optical Turbulence) Profiles Using Radiosonde Data," PL-TR-93-2043, (Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque 1993).

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE, 1998).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics, (Academic, San Diego, 1998).

D. P. Greenwood and D. L. Fried, "Power Spectra Requirements for Wavefront-Compensative Systems," RADCTR-75-227, (Rome Air Development Center, Rome, 1975).

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive optics for astronomical telescopes, (Oxford Univ., New York, 1998).

P. K. Kundu, Fluid Mechanics, (Academic, San Diego, 1990).

M. Sarazin and A. Tokovinin, "The statistics of isoplanatic angle and adaptive optics time constant derived from DIMMdata," in Beyond conventional adaptive optics: a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubin, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, 2002), 321-328.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The solid line in the figure on the left is the model fit to the mean monthly wind speed for Hilo, Hawaii in the month of January. The dotted lines are the mean wind speed for Hilo, Hawaii in each January from 1973–2006. The figure on the right is the same, but for July. These figures illustrate the variation in the monthly mean wind speed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The wind speed and direction for Hilo, Hawaii. Each of the graphs in this figure has the the measured wind speed as a function of height plotted with a solid black line and the wind speed computed from the model coefficients in Table 2 is shown as a black dashed line. The wind direction is plotted as a solid red line. The wind speed is marked along the bottom of the graph, and the wind direction is marked on the top of the graph. The first letter of the corresponding month is in the upper right corner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The wind speed and direction for Oakland, California. The layout of the figure is the same as in Fig. 2, except the fitted wind model comes from Table 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The wind speed and direction for San Diego, California. The layout of the figure is the same as in Fig. 2, except the fitted wind model comes from Table 4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The wind speed and direction for Tucson, Arizona. The layout of the figure is the same as in Fig. 2, except the fitted wind model comes from Table 5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The wind speed and direction for Flagstaff, Arizona. The layout of the figure is the same as in Fig. 2, except the fitted wind model comes from Table 6.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The wind speed and direction for Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, which is useful for the observatories located in the Canary Islands. The layout of the figure is the same as in Fig. 2, except the fitted wind model comes from Table 7.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The wind speed and direction for Antofagasta, Chile. The layout of the figure is the same as in Fig. 2, except the fitted wind model comes from Table 8.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The binned Richardson number for Hilo, Hawaii The figure shows the fraction of Richardson numbers falling into two bins. Yellow signifies turbulent conditions (Ri < 0.25) and blue signifies non-turbulent conditions (Ri ≥ 0.25).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The binned Richardson number for Oakland, California. Yellow signifies turbulent conditions (Ri < 0.25) and blue signifies non-turbulent conditions (Ri ≥ 0.25).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The binned Richardson number for San Diego, California. Yellow signifies turbulent conditions (Ri < 0.25) and blue signifies non-turbulent conditions (Ri ≥ 0.25).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The binned Richardson number for Tucson, Arizona. Yellow signifies turbulent conditions (Ri < 0.25) and blue signifies non-turbulent conditions (Ri ≥ 0.25).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The binned Richardson number for Flagstaff, Arizona. Yellow signifies turbulent conditions (Ri < 0.25) and blue signifies non-turbulent conditions (Ri ≥ 0.25).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The binned Richardson number for Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Yellow signifies turbulent conditions (Ri < 0.25) and blue signifies non-turbulent conditions (Ri ≥ 0.25).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

The binned Richardson number for Antofagasta, Chile. Yellow signifies turbulent conditions (Ri < 0.25) and blue signifies non-turbulent conditions (Ri ≥ 0.25).

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Details of the radiosonde launch sites used

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Table 2 Hawaii Wind Speed Model Coefficients

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Table 3 Oakland Wind Speed Model Coefficients

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Table 4 San Diego Wind Speed Model Coefficients

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Table 5 Tucson Wind Speed Model Coefficients

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Table 6 Flagstaff Wind Speed Model Coefficients

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Table 7 Tenerife Wind Speed Model Coefficients

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Table 8 Antofagasta Wind Speed Model Coefficients

Equations (4)

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v ( z ) = 8 + 30 exp ( [ ( z sin θ 9400 ) 4800 ] 2 ) ,
v ( z ) = v G + v T exp ( [ z cos ζ h T L T ] 2 )
v ( z ) = A 0 + A 1 exp ( [ ( z A 2 ) A 3 ] 2 ) .
R i = g ln Θ z ( u z ) 2 + ( v z ) 2 ,

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