Abstract

An etched beam splitter (EBS) photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) is designed, fabricated and characterized in the InP/InGaAsP material system. The EBS offers an ultra compact footprint (8x11 μm) and a complete range of bar/cross coupling ratio designs. A novel pre-etching process is developed to achieve sufficient depth of the etched coupling gaps. Fabricated EBS couplers demonstrate insertion loss between 1 and 2.6 dB with transmission (cross-coupling) 10%. The results show excellent agreement with 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling. The coupling of EBS has weak wavelength dependence in the C-band, making it suitable for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) or other wide bandwidth applications. Finally, the EBS is integrated with active semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and phase-modulator components; using a flattened ring resonator structure, a channelizing filter tunable in both amplitude and center frequency is demonstrated, as well as an EBS coupled ring laser.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 492–494 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, “Ultracompact directional couplers realized in InP by utilizing feature size dependent etching,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1927–1929 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Li, G. P. Nordin, J. M. English, and J. Jiang, “Small-area bends and beamsplitters for lowindex-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(3), 282–290 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Kim, and N. Dagli, “Compact Micro Resonators with Etched Beam Splitters and Total Internal Reflection Mirrors,” in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications/Nanophotonics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper IWB.
  10. N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
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  12. Y. Qian, J. Song, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact 90 ° trench-based splitter for silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16712–16718 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Kim and N. Dagli, “Submicron Etched Beam Splitters Based on Total Internal Reflection in GaAs–AlGaAs Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(13), 1938–1943 (2010).
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  14. E. Norberg, J. Parker, U. Krishnamachari, R. Guzzon, and L. Coldren, InGaAsP/InP based Flattened Ring Resonators iwth Etched Beam Splitters,” in Conference on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications Nanophotonics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper IWB.
  15. U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).
  16. R. H. Renard, “Total reflection: a new evaluation of the Goos–Hänchen shift,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(10), 1190–1197 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Parker, E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, S. Nicholes, and L. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar ICP for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (to be published).
  18. S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, and L. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Filters Fabricated with Deeply Etched Waveguides,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, (IEEE Photonics Society, Newport beach, CA, 2009), pp. 163–166.
  21. E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. K. Madsen, and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach, (Whiley-Interscience 1999), Chap. 6.

2010

B. Kim and N. Dagli, “Submicron Etched Beam Splitters Based on Total Internal Reflection in GaAs–AlGaAs Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(13), 1938–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, “Ultracompact directional couplers realized in InP by utilizing feature size dependent etching,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1927–1929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Qian, J. Song, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact 90 ° trench-based splitter for silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16712–16718 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. Li, G. P. Nordin, J. M. English, and J. Jiang, “Small-area bends and beamsplitters for lowindex-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(3), 282–290 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. H. Renard, “Total reflection: a new evaluation of the Goos–Hänchen shift,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(10), 1190–1197 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, J. H.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, “Ultracompact directional couplers realized in InP by utilizing feature size dependent etching,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1927–1929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anthes-Washburn, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beebe, E. D.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bouchoule, S.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Bowers, J. E.

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calhoun, L. C.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chabert, P.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, M. P.

N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coldren, L.

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

J. Parker, E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, S. Nicholes, and L. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar ICP for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (to be published).

Coldren, L. A.

E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Contolini, R. J.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cueva, G.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, K. D.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

B. Kim and N. Dagli, “Submicron Etched Beam Splitters Based on Total Internal Reflection in GaAs–AlGaAs Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(13), 1938–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Djordjev, K.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

English, J. M.

L. Li, G. P. Nordin, J. M. English, and J. Jiang, “Small-area bends and beamsplitters for lowindex-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(3), 282–290 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, G. A.

N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatilova, L.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gill, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griffel, G.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guilet, S.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guzzon, R.

J. Parker, E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, S. Nicholes, and L. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar ICP for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (to be published).

Guzzon, R. S.

E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harriott, L. R.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hawley, D.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, “Ultracompact directional couplers realized in InP by utilizing feature size dependent etching,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1927–1929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P.-T.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huntoon, N. R.

N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, T. A.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-H.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

L. Li, G. P. Nordin, J. M. English, and J. Jiang, “Small-area bends and beamsplitters for lowindex-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(3), 282–290 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, L.

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Johansson, L. A.

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, F. G.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

B. Kim and N. Dagli, “Submicron Etched Beam Splitters Based on Total Internal Reflection in GaAs–AlGaAs Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(13), 1938–1943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Y. Qian, J. Song, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact 90 ° trench-based splitter for silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16712–16718 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klamkin, J.

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Krishnamachari, U.

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Lal, V.

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Largeau, L.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. P.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lepore, A.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, G. P. Nordin, J. M. English, and J. Jiang, “Small-area bends and beamsplitters for lowindex-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(3), 282–290 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, D. L.

N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masanovic, M. L.

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menna, R.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna, and J. Connolly, “Microring resonator vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 828–830 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. B.

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicholes, S.

J. Parker, E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, S. Nicholes, and L. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar ICP for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (to be published).

Nicholes, S. C.

E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norberg, E.

E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

J. Parker, E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, S. Nicholes, and L. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar ICP for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (to be published).

Nordin, G. P.

Y. Qian, J. Song, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact 90 ° trench-based splitter for silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16712–16718 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, G. P. Nordin, J. M. English, and J. Jiang, “Small-area bends and beamsplitters for lowindex-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(3), 282–290 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliver King, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, J. S.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pajer, G.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J.

J. Parker, E. Norberg, R. Guzzon, S. Nicholes, and L. Coldren, “High verticality InP/InGaAsP etching in Cl2/H2/Ar ICP for photonic integrated circuits,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (to be published).

Parker, J. S.

E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patriarche, G.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, “Sidewall Passivation Assisted by a Silicon Coverplate during Cl2-H2 HBr Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of InP for Photonic Devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 666–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Y.

Y. Qian, J. Song, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact 90 ° trench-based splitter for silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16712–16718 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaswamy, A.

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Raring, J. W.

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Renard, R. H.

R. H. Renard, “Total reflection: a new evaluation of the Goos–Hänchen shift,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(10), 1190–1197 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ristic, S.

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, L. Johansson, A. Ramaswamy, J. Klamkin, E. Norberg, J. Bowers, and L. Coldren, “InP/InGaAsP-Based Integrated 3-dB Trench Couplers for Ultra-Compact Coherent Receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Rommel, S.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sai Chu, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schellanbarger, Z.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, S. He, and S. Anand, “Ultracompact directional couplers realized in InP by utilizing feature size dependent etching,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1927–1929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skogen, E. J.

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Y. Qian, J. Song, S. Kim, and G. P. Nordin, “Compact 90 ° trench-based splitter for silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16712–16718 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unlu,

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van,

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-Cascaded Semiconductor Microring Resonators for High-Order and Wide-FSR Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 872–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. S.

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whaley, R.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. S.

N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, A. W.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zah, C. E.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

S. Rommel, J.-H. Jang, W. Lu, G. Cueva, L. Zhou, I. Adesida, G. Pajer, R. Whaley, A. Lepore, Z. Schellanbarger, and J. H. Abeles, “Effect of H2 on the etch profile of InP/InGaAsP alloys in Cl2/Ar/H2 inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching chemistriesfor photonic device fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20(4), 1327–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

S. Zhu, A. W. Yu, D. Hawley, and R. Roy, “Frustrated total internal reflection: a demonstration and review,” Am. J. Phys. 54(7), 601–607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, S. C. Nicholes, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Compact beam splitters with deep gratings for miniature photonic integrated circuits: design and implementation aspects,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F68–F75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Huntoon, M. P. Christensen, D. L. MacFarlane, G. A. Evans, and C. S. Yeh, “Integrated photonic coupler based on frustrated total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 47(30), 5682–5690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

J. S. Osinski, C. E. Zah, R. Bhat, R. J. Contolini, E. D. Beebe, T. P. Lee, K. D. Cummings, and L. R. Harriott, “Miniature integrated optical Beam-Splitter in AlGaAs/GaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 23(21), 1156–1158 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, V. Oliver King, Van, D. Sai Chu, M. Gill, M. S. Anthes-Washburn, Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, “Monolithically integrated active components: a quantum-well intermixing approach,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 343–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable Photonic Lattice Filters in InGaAsP–InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 109–111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, and S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(5), 492–494 (2000).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the EBS coupler illustrating the basic design parameters, incident angle (Θi) of the input and output waveguides, EBS air gap for evanescent coupling and the Goos-Hanchen shift (GHS) between input and output waveguides. (b) FDTD simulation showing the magnetic field intensity | H y | . (c) Deeply etched InP/InGaAsP waveguide, with the calculated fundamental mode superimposed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power coupling ratios as a function of EBS gap width for different incident angles (Θi), (a) 2D- and (b) 3D-FDTD simulations. (c) Total insertion loss of the EBS coupler as a function of gap width for different incident angles, 2D- (solid) and 3D-FDTD simulations (dashed).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of pre-etching process. (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the hardmask illustrating the successful patterning over the pre-etched region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM image of the EBS coupler. The lighter region shows where the SiNx insulation layer was selectively removed to achieve a semiconductor-air interface in the EBS gap. The highlighted EBS gap demonstrates anisotropic and smooth sidewalls and a sufficient etch through the waveguide layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the test structure used for characterizing power coupling and insertion loss of the different EBS coupler designs. Lock-in at 7.2 kHz issued to improve sensitivity. On-chip SOAs are reversed biased to detect coupled light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a),(b) EBS power coupling and (c) insertion loss as a function of gap width for incident angles (Θi) of 24° and 26° at 1550 nm, for measured EBS coupler designs (squares) and 3D-FDTD simulations (dashed lines). (d) Measured power coupling as a function of wavelength for the 80/20 (bar/cross) EBS design.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM image of a PIC filter device that utilize the flattened ring resonator design with EBS couplers. Highlighted waveguides shows the flattened ring and illustrates the reduction in resonator length versus a circular resonator design. Port 1 and 2 shows the input and output waveguide ports for the measured filter responses.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured filter responses of the flattened ring resonator. (a) Tuning of pole-magnitude (G) by changing bias on the SOA (solid), with ideal simulated S21 filter function superimposed dashed). (b) Tuning of the filter center frequency by current injection in the phase modulators (PM).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Light-current characteristic of the flattned ring resonator demonstrating onset of lasing at ~23 mA, inset shows the lasing spectrum at 55mA, single mode operation with ~32 dB of SMSR.

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