Abstract

A three-dimensional (3D) windshield display can display driving information in the vicinity of objects in the driver’s front scene. We propose a super multi-view windshield display that can present the information in a wide depth range. The super multi-view display technique provides a smooth motion parallax. Motion parallax is the only physiological cue for perceiving the depths of 3D images displayed at far distances; these cannot be perceived by other physiological cues such as vergence, binocular disparity, and accommodation. A prototype system, which generates 36 viewing zones with a horizontal interval of 3.61 mm, was constructed. The smoothness of the motion parallax and the accuracy of the depth perception were evaluated.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. K. Nakamura, J. Inada, M. Kakizaki, T. Fujikawa, S. Kasiwada, H. Ando, and N. Kawahara, “Windshield Display for Intelligent transport system,” in Proc. 11th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 85, pp. 3058–3065 (2004).
  2. R. J. Kiefer, and A. W. Gellatly, “Quantifying the Consequences of the “Eyes-on-Road” Benefit Attributed to Head-Up Displays,” in Proc. SAE International Congress & Exposition, Paper No. 960946 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA,1996).
  3. N. Aoki, “Perspective for Head-Up Display,” in Proc. 11th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 85, p3149–3156 (2004).
  4. A. Stokes, C. Wickens, and K. Kite, “Human Factors Concepts,” in Display Technology, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1990).
  5. D. Weintraub, and M. Ensing, “A head-up display state of the art report,” in Human Factors Issues in Head-Up Display Design: The Book of HUD, (CSERIAC, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH, 1992).
  6. T. Todoriki, J. Fukano, S. Okabayashi, M. Sakata, and H. Tsuda, “Application of head-up displays for in-vehicle navigation/route guidance,” in Proc. Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference, pp.479–484 (1994).
  7. S. Nancy, Martinelli and Scott A. Boulanger, “Cadillac DeVille Thermal Imaging Night Vision System,” in Proc. SAE 2000 World Congress, Paper No. 2000–01–0323 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 2000).
  8. Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).
  9. T. Tsuji, H. Hattori, M. Watanabe, and N. Nagaoka, “Development of night-vision system,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 3(3), 203–209 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques,Academic Press, New York, 1976.
  11. Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.
  13. T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, S. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “A display system for natural viewing of 3-D images,” in Three-dimensional television, video and display technologies, B. Javidi, F. Okano ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 2002) p.461–487.
  14. Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4358–4369 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13023–13034 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8549–8556 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J. Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8549–8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J. Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13023–13034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4358–4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

T. Tsuji, H. Hattori, M. Watanabe, and N. Nagaoka, “Development of night-vision system,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 3(3), 203–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, J. A.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

Fujii, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

Goto, Y.

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

Hagisato, Y.

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

Hahn, M.

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4358–4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

Hatada, T.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

Hattori, H.

T. Tsuji, H. Hattori, M. Watanabe, and N. Nagaoka, “Development of night-vision system,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 3(3), 203–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

Iwata, Y.

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

Kajiki, Y.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

Kim, D. W.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J. Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8549–8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13023–13034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4358–4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J. Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumasaka, T.

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

Kwon, Y. M.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J. Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8549–8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13023–13034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4358–4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, S.-W.

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8549–8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13023–13034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4358–4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagaoka, N.

T. Tsuji, H. Hattori, M. Watanabe, and N. Nagaoka, “Development of night-vision system,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 3(3), 203–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nago, N.

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoo, H.

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

Son, J. Y.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J. Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susami, K.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Toyofuku, K.

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

Tsuji, T.

T. Tsuji, H. Hattori, M. Watanabe, and N. Nagaoka, “Development of night-vision system,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 3(3), 203–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Berkel, C.

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

T. Tsuji, H. Hattori, M. Watanabe, and N. Nagaoka, “Development of night-vision system,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 3(3), 203–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, H.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst.

T. Tsuji, H. Hattori, M. Watanabe, and N. Nagaoka, “Development of night-vision system,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 3(3), 203–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view 3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, M. Hahn, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional electro-floating display system using an integral imaging method,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4358–4369 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing region maximization of an integral floating display through location adjustment of viewing window,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13023–13034 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S.-W. Min, and B. Lee, “Floated image mapping for integral floating display,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8549–8556 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, Y. M. Kwon, and J. Y. Son, “Evaluation of the monocular depth cue in 3D displays,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21415–21422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

C. van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, “Thin-type natural three-dimensional display with 72 directional images,” Proc. SPIE 5664, 56–63 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

TOYOTA Technical Review.

Y. Hagisato, Y. Iwata, K. Toyofuku, Y. Goto, H. Senoo, and T. Kumasaka, “The “Night View System” Using Near-Infrared Light,” TOYOTA Technical Review. 52, 48–53 (2002).

Other

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, K. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “Three-dimensional display technologies satisfying ‘super multiview condition,” SPIE. Crtical. Reviews. CR76, p.218–249.

T. Honda, Y. Kajiki, S. Susami, T. Hamaguchi, T. Endo, T. Hatada, and T. Fujii, “A display system for natural viewing of 3-D images,” in Three-dimensional television, video and display technologies, B. Javidi, F. Okano ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Germany, 2002) p.461–487.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques,Academic Press, New York, 1976.

K. Nakamura, J. Inada, M. Kakizaki, T. Fujikawa, S. Kasiwada, H. Ando, and N. Kawahara, “Windshield Display for Intelligent transport system,” in Proc. 11th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 85, pp. 3058–3065 (2004).

R. J. Kiefer, and A. W. Gellatly, “Quantifying the Consequences of the “Eyes-on-Road” Benefit Attributed to Head-Up Displays,” in Proc. SAE International Congress & Exposition, Paper No. 960946 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA,1996).

N. Aoki, “Perspective for Head-Up Display,” in Proc. 11th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 85, p3149–3156 (2004).

A. Stokes, C. Wickens, and K. Kite, “Human Factors Concepts,” in Display Technology, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1990).

D. Weintraub, and M. Ensing, “A head-up display state of the art report,” in Human Factors Issues in Head-Up Display Design: The Book of HUD, (CSERIAC, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH, 1992).

T. Todoriki, J. Fukano, S. Okabayashi, M. Sakata, and H. Tsuda, “Application of head-up displays for in-vehicle navigation/route guidance,” in Proc. Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference, pp.479–484 (1994).

S. Nancy, Martinelli and Scott A. Boulanger, “Cadillac DeVille Thermal Imaging Night Vision System,” in Proc. SAE 2000 World Congress, Paper No. 2000–01–0323 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 2000).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (3616 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2014 KB)     

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three-dimensional windshield display (3D-WSD) system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of perceived 3D image position on eye positions: (a) two-view-type 3D-WSD and (b) super multi-view 3D-WSD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth reproduction by binocular disparity of 3D images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Uncertainty of depth reproduction by binocular disparity (field of view is 30°, except the prototype.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Discontinuity of motion parallax by multi-view displays.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Structure of SMV-WSD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image formations of SMV-WSD.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph of constructed SMV-WSD.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of 3D image generated by SMV-WSD. (Media 1)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photographs of 3D images displayed at the depths of (a) 5 m, (b) 10 m, (c) 20 m, (d) 30 m, (e) 40 m, and (f) 50 m. (Media 2)

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured intensity distributions of viewing zones.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Evaluation of motion parallax smoothness: pitches of viewing zones are (a) 10.8 mm (12-view mode), (b) 7.22 mm (18-view mode), and (c) 3.61 mm (36-view mode).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Blurring of 3D images: (a) ~(c) show the results for the 12-view mode, (d) ~(f) show those for the 18-view mode, and (g) ~(i) show those for the 36-view mode; (a), (d), and (g) show results for image depth of 10 m; (b), (e), and (h) show those for 30 m; and (c), (f), and (i) show those for 50 m.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Perceived depth of long-distance 3D images: (a) shows the results for two-view mode, and (b) and (c) show the results when pitches of viewing zones are 7.22 mm (18-view mode) and 3.61 mm (36-view mode), respectively.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( z l ) / z = ξ / P .
Δ z = p z 2 / ( P l p z ) .
Δ z = z 2 Δ θ p / ( P z Δ θ p ) .
Δ θ m = ( 1 / l 1 / z ) d .
l / ( 1 + p / d ) z l / ( 1 p / d ) ( d p ) , z l / ( 1 + p / d ) ( d p ) .
l = 2 / ( 1 / z n + 1 / z f ) ,
p / d = ( z f z n ) / ( z f + z n ) .
1 / s 1 / ( l h ) = 1 / f ' ,
( l h ) / s = D / D 0 .
1 / ( l 0 s ) + 1 / h = 1 / f ' ,
h / ( l 0 s ) = W / W 0 .

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