Abstract

We demonstrate a 5-GHz-broadband tunable slow-light device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a standard highly-nonlinear optical fiber pumped by a noise-current-modulated laser beam. The noise-modulation waveform uses an optimized pseudo-random distribution of the laser drive voltage to obtain an optimal flat-topped gain profile, which minimizes the pulse distortion and maximizes pulse delay for a given pump power. In comparison with a previous slow-modulation method, eye-diagram and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis show that this broadband slow-light technique significantly increases the fidelity of a delayed data sequence, while maintaining the delay performance. A fractional delay of 0.81 with a SNR of 5.2 is achieved at the pump power of 350 mW using a 2-km-long highly nonlinear fiber with the fast noise-modulation method, demonstrating a 50% increase in eye-opening and a 36% increase in SNR in the comparison.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Gauthier, "Controlling the velocity of light pulses," Science 326, 1074-1077 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Thévenaz, "Slow and fast light in optical fibres," Nat. Photonics 2, 474-481 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Sakamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, "Low distortion slow light in flat Brillouin gain spectrum by using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 8026-8032 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, and D. J. Gauthier, "Observation of large 10-Gb/s SBS slow light delay with low distortion using an optimized gain profile," Opt. Express 16, 16032-16042 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. A. Olsson, and J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Fibre Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 22, 488-490 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Multichannel SBS Slow Light Using Spectrally Sliced Incoherent Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3763-3769 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, "Optimal pump profile designs for broadband SBS slow-light systems," Opt. Express 16, 2764-2777 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2008), Ch. 9.
  21. R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1-59 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1-59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Gauthier, "Controlling the velocity of light pulses," Science 326, 1074-1077 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Thévenaz, "Slow and fast light in optical fibres," Nat. Photonics 2, 474-481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, "Low distortion slow light in flat Brillouin gain spectrum by using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 8026-8032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, and D. J. Gauthier, "Observation of large 10-Gb/s SBS slow light delay with low distortion using an optimized gain profile," Opt. Express 16, 16032-16042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Multichannel SBS Slow Light Using Spectrally Sliced Incoherent Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3763-3769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, "Optimal pump profile designs for broadband SBS slow-light systems," Opt. Express 16, 2764-2777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

N. A. Olsson, and J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Fibre Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 22, 488-490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Andonovic, I.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bigo, S.

L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bo, Z.

Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Gauthier, "Controlling the velocity of light pulses," Science 326, 1074-1077 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrera-Granado, E.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, and D. J. Gauthier, "Observation of large 10-Gb/s SBS slow light delay with low distortion using an optimized gain profile," Opt. Express 16, 16032-16042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calderon, O. G.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, and D. J. Gauthier, "Observation of large 10-Gb/s SBS slow light delay with low distortion using an optimized gain profile," Opt. Express 16, 16032-16042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, D.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1-59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cornwell, W. D.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, A. M. C.

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyal, A.

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fazal, I.

Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Gauthier, "Controlling the velocity of light pulses," Science 326, 1074-1077 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, and D. J. Gauthier, "Observation of large 10-Gb/s SBS slow light delay with low distortion using an optimized gain profile," Opt. Express 16, 16032-16042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, "Optimal pump profile designs for broadband SBS slow-light systems," Opt. Express 16, 2764-2777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

González Herráez, M.

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hotate, K.

K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaouen, Y.

L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobyakov, A.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1-59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ku, P. C.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, "Low distortion slow light in flat Brillouin gain spectrum by using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 8026-8032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melle, S.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, and D. J. Gauthier, "Observation of large 10-Gb/s SBS slow light delay with low distortion using an optimized gain profile," Opt. Express 16, 16032-16042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narum, P.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neifeld, M. A.

R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, "Optimal pump profile designs for broadband SBS slow-light systems," Opt. Express 16, 2764-2777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson, and J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Fibre Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 22, 488-490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pant, R.

R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, "Optimal pump profile designs for broadband SBS slow-light systems," Opt. Express 16, 2764-2777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rzaewski, K.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, "Low distortion slow light in flat Brillouin gain spectrum by using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 8026-8032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, M.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1-59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shalom, H.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, K.

T. Sakamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, "Low distortion slow light in flat Brillouin gain spectrum by using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 8026-8032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. Y.

K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stenner, M. D.

R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, "Optimal pump profile designs for broadband SBS slow-light systems," Opt. Express 16, 2764-2777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thévenaz, L.

L. Thévenaz, "Slow and fast light in optical fibres," Nat. Photonics 2, 474-481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Der Ziel, J. P.

N. A. Olsson, and J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Fibre Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 22, 488-490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Multichannel SBS Slow Light Using Spectrally Sliced Incoherent Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3763-3769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, "Low distortion slow light in flat Brillouin gain spectrum by using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 8026-8032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, L.

B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Multichannel SBS Slow Light Using Spectrally Sliced Incoherent Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3763-3769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L. S.

Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. Y.

Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, L.

L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zadok, A.

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Multichannel SBS Slow Light Using Spectrally Sliced Incoherent Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3763-3769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Multichannel SBS Slow Light Using Spectrally Sliced Incoherent Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3763-3769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1-59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Optically controlled slow and fast light in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

N. A. Olsson, and J. P. Van Der Ziel, "Fibre Brillouin amplifier with electronically controlled bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 22, 488-490 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Bo, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, and A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, "Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Multichannel SBS Slow Light Using Spectrally Sliced Incoherent Pumping," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3763-3769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

Y. Zhu, E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and D. J. Gauthier, "Competition between the modulation instability and stimulated Brillouin scattering in a broadband slow light device," J. Opt. 12, 104019 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, Y. Okawachi, J. E. Sharping, A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, and A. E. Willner, "Numerical study of all-optical slow-light delays via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2378-2384 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

L. Thévenaz, "Slow and fast light in optical fibres," Nat. Photonics 2, 474-481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

L. Yi, Y. Jaouen, W. Hu, Y. Su, and S. Bigo, "Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS," Opt. Express 15, 16972-16979 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Express 14, 8498-8505 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cabrera-Granado, O. G. Calderon, S. Melle, and D. J. Gauthier, "Observation of large 10-Gb/s SBS slow light delay with low distortion using an optimized gain profile," Opt. Express 16, 16032-16042 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, "Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay," Opt. Express 13, 9995-10002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, "Optimal pump profile designs for broadband SBS slow-light systems," Opt. Express 16, 2764-2777 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sakamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, "Low distortion slow light in flat Brillouin gain spectrum by using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 8026-8032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. González Herráez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

K. Y. Song, and K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Gauthier, "Controlling the velocity of light pulses," Science 326, 1074-1077 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 2008), Ch. 9.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pump spectral distribution optimization procedure for the case of fast noise modulation. Modulation voltage waveform V (t) (left column), probability distribution P (bin size = 0.025 V) (middle column) and resultant pump beam spectrum p(ωp) (right column) are shown for flat-distributed white noise modulation V (t) = 2.5 V× f (t), where f (t) is a random variable that is approximate uniformly distributed between −0.5 and 0.5 (upper row), bi-peak symmetric noise modulation V (t) = 2.5 V×tanh[10 f (t)] (middle row) and optimal noise modulation V (t) = 2.5 V×tanh[10(f (t) + 0.06)] (bottom row). A Gaussian spectral profile resulted from a Gaussian noise modulation V (t) = 2.5 V×g(t), where g(t) is a random variable with standard normal distribution, is inserted into the Figs. c,f and i for comparison. The DC injection current is 110 mA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pump spectral distribution optimization procedure for the case of slow modulation. Modulation waveform V (t) (left column) and measured pump spectrum profile p(ωp) (right column) are shown for triangular modulation (upper row), with the addition of a small quadratic term (middle row), and for the optimum waveform (lower row). The DC injection current is 110 mA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experiment setup. Spectrally broadened pump and signal beams counter-propagate in the 2-km-long slow light medium (HNLF, OFS Inc.), where they interact via the SBS process. The SBS frequency shift in HNLF is 9.62 GHz. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG, bandwidth 0.1 nm) is used to filter out the Rayleigh backscattering of the pump beam from the amplified and delayed signal pulse sequence before detection. AWG: arbitrary function generator (Tektronix AFG3251), DFB1: 1550-nm DFB laser diode (Sumitomo Electric, STL4416), EDFA: erbium doped fiber amplifier (IPG Photonics EAD 1K), DFB2: 1550-n DFB laser diode (Fitel FOL15DCWC), MZM: Mach-Zehnder Modulator, PG: electronic signal pattern generator, PR: 12 GHz photo-receiver (New Focus 1544b), FPC: fiber polarization controllers, CIR: optical circulator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SBS gain profiles for fast (solid black line) and slow modulations (red dashed line) at Pp = 70 mW. (b) SBS gain saturation for fast and slow modulation methods. The black solid line shows the SBS gain G for the fast noise modulation, which grows linearly with pump power Pp until saturated. The red dashed line shows the SBS gain G for the slow modulation, which starts to saturate gradually at a much smaller Pp compared to the fast modulation method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Slow light performance for fast (solid black line) and slow (dashed red line) modulation waveforms in HNLF, and slow modulation waveform in LEAF (dotted green line). (a) Slow light delay as a function of Pp. The theoretically predicted delay for a rectangular-like optimized gain profile (blue dash-dot line) and for a super-Gaussian gain profile (cyan dash-double dot line) in the HNLF fiber are also shown. SBS gain saturation is avoided using a signal data sequence with a small peak optical power Ps0 = 12 μW; (b) Averaged output signal profiles at Pp = 350 mW for the first single pulse in the data sequence, together with the undelayed pulse profile at Pp = 0 mW (blue dotted line) in HNLF. Both fast and slow modulation methods result in very similar pulse profile modification without significant broadening. The amplitude of the pulses is normalized as a percentage of the peak pulse height; Fidelity metrics are shown in (c) EO and (d) SNR as functions of Pp, demonstrating better performance for the fast modulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Eye diagrams of delayed and amplified data sequences for (a) slow and (b) fast modulation waveforms at Pp = 350 mW in HNLF. The arrows in the figure show the EO for each case.

Equations (3)

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ω p ( t ) = a 0 i ( t ) i ( t ) h ( t ) ,
V ( t ) = v max / 2 × { a t 2 + ( 4 / T a T / 4 ) t if t < T / 4 a t 2 ( 4 / T + a 3 T / 4 ) t + 2 + ( 2 a T 2 ) / 4 2 if T / 4 < t 3 T / 4 a t 2 + ( 4 / T a 9 T / 4 ) t + ( 5 a T 2 ) / 4 4 if 3 T / 4 < t T ,
G = ln ( P s / P s 0 ) .

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